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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 by Pearson Education. Reproduced by permission of the publisher. Further reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the publisher. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Learning www.ablongman.com/lefton9e
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Learning A relatively permanent change in an organism –The result of experience –Exhibited in behavior
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Learning I.Classical Conditioning II.Operant Conditioning III.Cognitive Learning IV.Biological Basis for Learning
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Classical Conditioning –Conditioning A systematic procedure through which associations and responses to specific stimuli are learned One of the simplest forms of learning –Reflexes automatic behavior occur without prior learning
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Basics of Classical Conditioning Conditioning versus reflexes –Conditioning does require learning Learned association between a neutral stimulus and a stimulus that evokes a reflex
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849 – 1936) –Studied digestion in dogs –Discovered Classical (or Pavlovian) Conditioning –An originally neutral stimulus, through repeated pairings with a stimulus that naturally produces a response, comes to elicit a similar or identical response
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Classical Conditioning Terms and Procedures 1. Unconditioned Stimulus The stimulus that automatically produces a response Unlearned E.g., Food 2. Unconditioned Response Automatic, involuntary response to the unconditioned stimulus E.g., Salivation
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Terms and Procedures Procedure –Present a neutral stimulus immediately before an unconditioned stimulus Neutral Stimulus: BELL Unconditioned Stimulus: FOOD Unconditioned Response: SALIVATION
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Terms and Procedures Procedure –Repeat many, many times –Remove the unconditioned stimulus: Stimulus: BELL Response: SALIVATION –Original stimulus no longer neutral!
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Terms and Procedures Conditioned Stimulus –A previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated association with an unconditioned stimulus, becomes capable of eliciting a response –E.g., Bell Conditioned Response –The response to the Conditioned Stimulus –E.g., Salivating
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Classical Conditioning Conditioning does not occur immediately –Occurs gradually over many repeated pairings –This process through which the conditioned stimulus becomes associated with a learned response is called an acquisition process
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Classical Conditioning in Humans Many types of responses can be conditioned in humans Conditioning can occur –Without our awareness –For pleasant and unpleasant reactions
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Classical Conditioning in Humans Little Albert –John Watson and Rosalie Raynor (1920) Frightening, loud noise White Rat –After many pairings: White Rat Fear
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Classical Conditioning in Humans Little Albert –This type of learning is probably the source for most fear and anxiety in children
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Higher-Order Conditioning The process by which a neutral stimulus takes on conditioned properties through pairing with a conditioned stimulus Permits increasingly remote associations
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Key Variables in Classical Conditioning Strength, timing and frequency a. Strength of the unconditioned stimulus b. Timing of the unconditioned stimulus c. Frequency of Pairings
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Key Variables in Classical Conditioning Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery a. Extinction Process by which the conditioned stimulus no longer elicits the unconditioned response b. Spontaneous Recovery When an extinguished conditioned response reappears
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Key Variables in Classical Conditioning Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination a. Stimulus Generalization When a conditioned response occurs in response to a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus Probably explains how some phobias develop b. Stimulus Discrimination An organism learns to respond only to the specific conditioned stimulus
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Classical Conditioning in Daily Life The Garcia Effect –John Garcia (Garcia & Koelling, 1971) Conditioned taste aversion –Two startling findings Could occur even if nausea was induced several hours after food or drink was consumed Not all stimuli were equally easily associated
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 The Garcia Effect Conditioned taste aversion can occur after only one pairing –Survival value of quickly learning to avoid foods that make us sick
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 The Garcia Effect Practical applications –Preventing appetite loss with chemotherapy patients
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Classical Conditioning in Daily Life Learning and chemotherapy –Nausea can be conditioned to occur Unconditioned Stimulus: CHEMO- THERAPY Unconditioned Response: NAUSEA Conditioned Response: NAUSEA Conditioned stimulus: FOOD Conditioned stimulus: FOOD
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Pavlov’s Understanding Reinterpreted Pavlov thought in terms of simple associations between paired stimuli Today’s researchers are considering how imagined stimuli (such as thoughts) can evoke a response
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Operant Conditioning Differences from classical conditioning –Conditioned behavior is voluntary, not reflexive –Consequence follows, rather than coexists with or precedes a behavior
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Operant Conditioning The Pioneers 1. E. L. Thorndike (1874 – 1949) Instrumental conditioning 2. B. F. Skinner (1904 – 1990) –Three types of consequences Behavior is ignored Behavior is rewarded (reinforced) Behavior is punished
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Operant Conditioning Reinforcement Reinforcers A reinforcer is any event that increases the likelihood of a behavior Reinforcement Strategies a. Positive Reinforcement –The presentation of a stimulus after a behavior that increases the likelihood that response will recur –Example: Receiving a dollar for cleaning your room
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Reinforcement Strategies Negative Reinforcement –The removal of a stimulus after a particular response to increase the likelihood the response will recur –The stimulus removed is usually unpleasant –Example: Taking an aspirin to get rid of a headache
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Negative Reinforcement Another example: –Apologizing after being sent to time-out Apologizing removes being confined to your room This is also an example of escape conditioning May lead to avoidance conditioning
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Reinforcement The Nature of Reinforcers –Two types of reinforcers a. Primary Reinforcer –Examples: Food, water, pain avoidance b. Secondary Reinforcer –Examples: Money, good grades
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Operant Conditioning The Skinner Box and Shaping –Skinner box Animal randomly emits behaviors Target behaviors are reinforced –Shaping The selective reinforcement of behaviors that gradually approach (approximate) a desired response Sometimes called the method of successive approximations
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Operant Conditioning Punishment –Types of Punishment a. Positive punishment –A stimulus is presented in order to decrease the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated –Example: Getting yelled at for hitting your sister
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Types of Punishment Negative Punishment –A stimulus is removed in order to decrease the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated –Example: Losing your car after getting into a wreck
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Punishment The Nature of Punishers –Two types of punishers: a. Primary punisher –Example: Pain b. Secondary punisher –Example: Losing your driver’s license
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Punishment Limitations of Punishment –Only suppresses behavior –Has social consequences –May not control behavior in the long run –Physical punishments can lead to aggression –Inconsistent punishment can lead to learned helplessness
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Key variables in Operant Conditioning Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Discrimination Extinction Spontaneous Recovery
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Operant Conditioning in Daily Life 1. Superstitious Behaviors 2. Intrinsically Motivated Behavior –May actually decrease if they are externally reinforced
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Cognitive Learning Observational Learning The Power of Modeling Albert Bandura –Social learning theory –Showed that children played more aggressively after observing films with aggressive content Observational learning can occur without being reinforced
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Observational Learning a. Gender role development b. Cultural values Observational Learning in Daily Life
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Cognitive Learning Other Types of Cognitive Learning Insight – the “aha” experience Latent Learning –Shows us a distinction between learning and performance
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006 Biological Basis for Learning Electrical Brain Stimulation and Reinforcement –James Olds (1955, 1960) Found that rats find electrical stimulation of specific brain areas in the hypothalamus to be rewarding –This brain region involves the neurotransmitter dopamine
Chapter 6: Learning. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a response. How.
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Conditioning. Ivan Pavlov Russian scientist – he wanted to learn about the relationship between digestion and the nervous system Accidentally discovered.
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1 Famous Psychology Experiments. 2 Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning Experiments on dogs Smarty Pants: Nobel Prize Dog.
Chapter 7: Learning 1 What is learning? A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience First test - purpose? To assess learning First test.
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Chapter 5: Learning Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
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