Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER NETWORKS CS-107 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING Aug-Dec,2010 Alak Roy Assistant Professor Dept. of CSE Royal Group of Institution Email."— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER NETWORKS CS-107 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING Aug-Dec,2010 Alak Roy Assistant Professor Dept. of CSE Royal Group of Institution Email : email@example.com
Computer Networks Computer network connects two or more autonomous computers. The computers can be geographically located anywhere. Introduction to Computer Networks
LAN, MAN & WAN Network in small geographical Area (Room, Building or a Campus) is called LAN (Local Area Network) Network in a City is call MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) Network spread geographically (Country or across Globe) is called WAN (Wide Area Network) Introduction to Computer Networks
Applications of Networks Resource Sharing Hardware (computing resources, disks, printers) Software (application software) Information Sharing Easy accessibility from anywhere (files, databases) Search Capability (WWW) Communication Email Message broadcast Remote computing Distributed processing (GRID Computing) Introduction to Computer Networks
Network Topology The network topology defines the way in which computers, printers, and other devices are connected. A network topology describes the layout of the wire and devices as well as the paths used by data transmissions. Introduction to Computer Networks
Bus Topology Commonly referred to as a linear bus, all the devices on a bus topology are connected by one single cable. Introduction to Computer Networks
Star & Tree Topology The star topology is the most commonly used architecture in Ethernet LANs. When installed, the star topology resembles spokes in a bicycle wheel. Larger networks use the extended star topology also called tree topology. When used with network devices that filter frames or packets, like bridges, switches, and routers, this topology significantly reduces the traffic on the wires by sending packets only to the wires of the destination host. Introduction to Computer Networks
Ring Topology A frame travels around the ring, stopping at each node. If a node wants to transmit data, it adds the data as well as the destination address to the frame. The frame then continues around the ring until it finds the destination node, which takes the data out of the frame. Single ring – All the devices on the network share a single cable Dual ring – The dual ring topology allows data to be sent in both directions. Introduction to Computer Networks
Mesh Topology The mesh topology connects all devices (nodes) to each other for redundancy and fault tolerance. It is used in WANs to interconnect LANs and for mission critical networks like those used by banks and financial institutions. Implementing the mesh topology is expensive and difficult. Introduction to Computer Networks M
Network Components Physical Media Interconnecting Devices Computers Networking Software Applications Introduction to Computer Networks
Networking Media Networking media can be defined simply as the means by which signals (data) are sent from one computer to another (either by cable or wireless means). Introduction to Computer Networks
Networking Devices HUB, Switches, Routers, Wireless Access Points, Modems etc. Introduction to Computer Networks
Computers: Clients and Servers In a client/server network arrangement, network services are located in a dedicated computer whose only function is to respond to the requests of clients. The server contains the file, print, application, security, and other services in a central computer that is continuously available to respond to client requests. Introduction to Computer Networks
OSI Model – Open System Interconnect – communicates wit applications - translates, de/compress, de/encrypt - Establishes Connections - Error Correction – Routing, Finding Best Route – disassembles & assembles Data segments – Passes Data onto wire 17 7. Application layer 6. Presentation layer 5. Sessions layer 4. Transport layer 3. Network layer 2. Data link layer 1. Physical layer All People Seem To Need Data Processing Please Do Not Throw Pizza Sausage Away Developed by ISO & IEEE
Networking Protocol: TCP/IP Transmission control protocol / internet protocol Introduction to Computer Networks TCP, UDP is a set of rules that enables different types of computers and networks on the Internet to communicate with one. TCP defines how data are transferred across the Internet to their destination. IP defines how data are divided into chunks, called packets, for transmission; it also determines the path each packet takes between computers
Applications E-mail Searchable Data (Web Sites) E-Commerce News Groups Internet Telephony (VoIP) Video Conferencing Chat Groups Instant Messengers Internet Radio Introduction to Computer Networks
www (World Wide Web) or web is a computer-based network of information resources that combines text and multimedia. Internet-connected files: a system for accessing, manipulating, and downloading a very large set of hypertext-linked documents and other files located on computers connected through the Internet The information on the World Wide Web can be accessed and searched through the Internet, a global computer network.
e-mail electronic mail electronic mail method of transmitting data, text files, digital photos, or audio and video files from one computer to another over an intranet or the Internet. E-mail enables computer users to send messages and data quickly through a local area network or beyond through the Internet. E-mail came into widespread use in the 1990s and has become a major development in business and personal communications.
ftp (file transfer protocol) standard procedure for transferring files a standard procedure that allows one computer to transfer files to and from another over a network such as the Internet. The protocol is a set of rules that ensures a file is transmitted properly to the receiving computer. A computer that stores files that can be retrieved using FTP is called an FTP site or FTP server. FTP is part of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), the system that enables different types of computers and networks on the Internet to communicate.
http (HyperText Transfer Protocol ) protocol for World Wide Web the client/server protocol : that defines how messages are formatted and transmitted on the World Wide Web Example: http://www.gmail.com URL (Uniform Resource Locator), an address that points to a particular document or other resource on the Internet, used most frequently on the World Wide Web (WWW). The first part of the URL, the part before the colon, represents the scheme, or protocol, used to retrieve the document. In this case, http indicates that the document is a Web page viewable by a Web browser.
rlogin Remote login –is one of the advantage of desktop sharing Uses desktop sharing software to give you ‘remote control’ for accessing your computer and all of its software and hard drive files from any internet connected device anywhere in the world.