Presentation on theme: "1 Motivation 2 What is Motivation? Motive – A motive is defined an inner state that energizes, activates (or moves), and directs (or channels) the behaviour."— Presentation transcript:
2 What is Motivation? Motive – A motive is defined an inner state that energizes, activates (or moves), and directs (or channels) the behaviour of individual towards certain goals. Motives and Needs are different. Motivation – While motives are energizers of actions, motivation is the actual action, (that is, work behaviour), itself. Motivating is a term that implies that one person induces another to engage in action by ensuring that a channel to direct the motive of the individual becomes available and accessible to the individual.
3 Motive, Motivating and Motivation MotiveMotivating Motivation Needs in individual Setting up proper stimuli in the environment to activate the motives in individual Engagement of individuals in work behaviour
4 Theories of Motivation Content Theories of Motivation The content theories of motivation are basically concerned with the need patterns of the individuals. Cognitive or Process Theories of Motivation Cognitive models of motivation are based on the notion that individual make conscious decisions about their behaviour. Reinforcement Theory This theory uses the principles of learning proposed by Skinner.
5 Content Theories – Maslow Self-Actualization Physiological Safety Belongingness Esteem Maslow believed that each person has an essential nature that “presses” to emerge. In his view, we all have higher-level growth needs – such as self-actualization and understanding of ourselves – but that these higher needs only assume a dominant role in our lives after our more primitive needs are satisfied.
6 Alderfer’s ERG Theory Growth Relatedness Existence
7 Herzberg’s Two Factor Model Hygiene factors Motivators Opposite of Dissatisfaction is NOT Satisfaction No SatisfactionSatisfactionDissatisfactionNo Dissatisfaction
8 Cognitive Theories – Adam’s Equity Theory Adam (1965) defined inequity as an injustice perceived by a person when he compares the ratio of his outcomes (rewards) to his inputs (efforts), with the ratio of another comparable person’s outcomes to inputs, and finds that they are not equal. Outcomes for personOutcomes for other Inputs of personInputs of other > Positive Inequity
9 Adam’s Equity Theory… Outcomes for personOutcomes for other Inputs of personInputs of other < Negative Inequity Consequences of Inequity 1.The person can alter inputs (efforts). 2.The person can try to alter outcomes or rewards. 3.The person can cognitively distort inputs or outcomes. 4.The person might quit the job. 5.The person could try to influence the other individual to reduce inputs. 6.The person might change the level of comparison.
15 Vroom’s VIE Model of Motivation Valence Valence – the strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome. In order for the valence to be positive, the person must prefer attaining the outcomes to not attaining it. Another major input into the valence is the instrumentality of the first-level outcome in obtaining a desired second-level outcome. Expectancy in Vroom’s theory is the probability (ranging from 0 to 1)
16 Vroom’s VIE Model of Motivation Attempted High Performance Efforts Attempted Acceptable Performance Efforts High Performance Acceptable Performance Sub-Standard Performance Choice 1 Choice 2 Effort Alternatives EP Probabilty Possible Performance Results.184.108.40.206 Fig: Expectancy perceptions on effort levels leading to performance
17 Vroom’s model… High Performance Acceptable Performance Sub-Standard Performance Bonus Recognition Stress Bonus Recognition Stress Bonus Recognition Stress Performance Alternatives Outcomes.220.127.116.11.4.2.01.6 P O Contengencies Fig: Instrumentality Perceptions: Probabilities of Performance leading to Rewards
18 Vroom’s model… High Performance Effort Alternatives Outcomes.6.8 Performance Results Fig: Choice Decisions based on Force calculations Choice 1: Attempted High Performance Efforts Bonus Recognition Stress Bonus Recognition Stress Acceptable Performance.18.104.22.168.4.2 +.8 +.4 -.5 +.8 +.4 -.5 E P Probability P R Probability Valence V E PP R X X +.384 +.114 -.21 +.096 +.064 -.04 Force for Choice 1 = +.438
19 Vroom’s model… Acceptable Performance Effort Alternatives Outcomes.7.3 Performance Results Fig: Choice Decisions based on Force calculations Choice 2: Attempted Acceptable Performance Efforts Bonus Recognition Stress Bonus Recognition Stress Sub-standard Performance.3.4.2.01.6 +.8 +.4 -.5 +.8 +.4 -.5 E P Probability P R Probability Valence V E PP R X X +.168 +.112 -.07 +.0024 +.0012 -.09 Force for Choice 2 = +.1236
21 Porter & Lawler – Contribution to Work Motivation The expectancy models provide certain guidelines that can be followed by human resource managers. For example, on the front-end (the relationship between motivation and performance), it has been suggested that the following barriers must be overcome: 1.Doubts about ability, skills, or knowledge. 2.The physical or practical possibility of the job. 3.The interdependence of the job with other people or activities. 4.Ambiguity surrounding the job requirements. In addition, on the back end (the relationship between performance and satisfaction), guidelines such as the following have been suggested: 1.Determine what rewards each employee values 2.Define desired performance 3.Make desired performance attainable 4.Link valued rewards to performance
22 Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement theory suggests that it is possible to predict behaviour without trying to understand the internal thought process of individuals. Reinforcement theorists believe that environmental consequences mould the behaviour of people. Reinforcement Strategies Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement – Negative reinforcement increases the frequency and strength of desired behaviour by making it contingent upon the avoidance of undesirable consequences for the person. Punishment Extinction Shaping