Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Psychology, 2 nd Ed. Chapter 7. Reconstructive Retrieval Refers to schema-guided construction of episodic memories that alter and distort encoded."— Presentation transcript:
Reconstructive Retrieval Refers to schema-guided construction of episodic memories that alter and distort encoded memory representations. Reconstruction levels by losing details, assimilates by normalizing to fit expectations, and sharpens by embellishing details.
Encoding Distortions Selection: Selective encoding of information that fits with prior knowledge. Interpretation: Inferences and suppositions are made to conform new material to activated schemas. Integration: Combining features of different events into a unified memory representation.
Source Monitoring Source monitoring refers to evaluative processes that attribute mental experiences to either external (perceived) or internal (thought, imagined, or dreamed) sources. Discriminating internal from external sources is essential to avoid false memories of events.
False Memories Verbal false memories occur when a list of semantically related words are perceived. A high associate of these words is often falsely remembered. Conjunction errors occur when part of a word is falsely linked to a part of another word. Confabulation involves a false narrative account of autobiographical events and is seen in severe pathological states of confusion.
Eyewitness Testimony How is the recall of an eyewitness affected by reconstructive retrieval processes? Even when witnesses are confident of the accuracy of their testimony, false recall can cause distortions. Approximately 8,500 wrongful convictions in the U.S. alone, with as many as half caused by incorrect eyewitness testimony.
Causes of False Testimony Selective encoding due to perceptual factors (poor visibility, rapid and unexpected events). Peripheral details, but not central features, are lost are under emotional duress.
Causes of False Testimony Misinformation in the form of questions asked of an eyewitness after an event can distort its recognition and recall. When questioned after a traffic accident, the verb used to describe the collision(contacted, hit, bumped, collided, smashed) determined speed estimates. Misinformation effects can be large. Poorly encoded details (e.g., was a stop sign or a yield sign?) are falsely recognized 80% of the time two weeks after receiving misleading information.
Causes of False Testimony Memory implantation refers to the creation of a false memory through direct suggestion. Preschool aged children are more susceptible than older children and adults. Debate centers on whether only unimportant details are implanted or important events with possible clinical implications. Delusional false memories reflect socio- cultural implantation. Beliefs create an illusion of an event having actually occurred.
Alternative Explanations of Recovered Memories Repression: a defense mechanism that operates unconsciously to prevent conscious recollection of disturbing events. Trauma-induced amnesia: a dissociation of consciousness during the experience that produces selective encoding. False recollection: Through misinformation, implantation, or confabulation the recovered memory never really happened.
Causes of False Testimony Faces are encoded by a specialized module and well retained across decades. However, attending to a weapon instead can cause errors due to selective encoding. Lineups must include lures similar to the target to avoid false recognition. Sequential rather than simultaneous lineups also reduce false recognition. Face identification is poorest across racial and ethnic categories.