Presentation on theme: "Diffusion of Ideas & Systems: 600-1450 The Middle Ages in Africa & Asia."— Presentation transcript:
Diffusion of Ideas & Systems: 600-1450 The Middle Ages in Africa & Asia
Key Understanding – Interaction of different religions leads to cultural blending or conflict due to common values and beliefs or differences.
Muhammad – born around A.D. 570; founder of Islam Muslims – those who worship Allah and recognize Muhammad as the last Prophet Mecca – the Holy City of the Islamic faith
Allah – Monotheistic deity; God of Abraham; Yahweh Hijra – pilgrimage to Mecca that each Muslim is required to take within their lifetime
Qu’ran/Koran – Book-writings of the prophet Muhammad Jihad – Holy struggle; expansion of Islam and Islamic control
Conversions – conquered people were allowed to keep their religions; many converted (often to avoid taxes) “People of the Book” – Christians and Jews – their faith was “incomplete” because they did not accept Muhammad; they worked as officials, scholars, bureaucrats
Interaction – Set-up trade networks between Europe, Asia, and North Africa; cultures blend – achievements in art and science
When Muhammad died there was conflict over who his successor (called the Caliph) would be. Shiite Muslims – believed that only Muhammad’s descendants could be caliphs. Sunni Muslims – followed a new caliph (the Umayyad Caliphate).
The Umayyad Caliphs were replaced by the Abbasid Caliphs in A.D. 750.
Both the Umayyads and the Abbasids fought a holy war, called a Jihad to expand Islam. Fatimid dynasty set up in North Africa Muslims control the Maghrib along the Mediterranean coast by 670 Berbers, who had originally been Christian and Jewish, convert to Islam in the 600s. The empire expanded from the Indus Valley to Spain. Expansion was halted in Europe at the Battle of Tours.