Presentation on theme: "AIM: How did Islam develop? Do-Now: Byzantine Crossword."— Presentation transcript:
AIM: How did Islam develop? Do-Now: Byzantine Crossword
The Arabian Peninsula The religion of Islam began in the Arabian Peninsula. This area is mostly desert, yet it was home to many Arabic nomadic tribes, called Bedouins Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born in Mecca around 570 AD. Mecca was a bustling market town. The Kaaba, an ancient temple for pagan gods was in Mecca. Many made pilgrimages there.
Muhammad Becomes A Prophet Muhammad, first a shepherd and then a merchant, was troubled by the lack of morals within Meccan society – especially greed. Muhammad devoted his life to spreading Islam and urged Arabs to give up their worship of pagan gods and worship one god, Allah (the Judeo-Christian god). Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the cave of Hira
Islam is an Abrahamic religion Monotheistic: Muslims are strict monotheists They believe in Allah, the Judeo-Christian god – Islam means “submission to the will of Allah” – Muslims = those who submit to the will of Allah People of the Book: Muslims believe that the Torah, the Bible and the Qur’an are all the word of god. They are all peoples of the book.
The Prophetic Tradition: God had many prophets but Muhammad is the last and greatest. ADAM Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad
The Hijra At first, Meccan merchants rejected Islam 622: Muhammad and his followers fled Mecca for Yathrib (now Medina) Hijra = a turning point for Islam because Muhammad was welcomed and many people converted to Islam. The beginning of the Muslim calendar (1 AH) 630: Muhammad returned to Mecca, rededicated the Kaaba to Allah, and united the Arabs under Islam.
Do-Now: Copy down these Quran notes. The Quran, the holy scriptures of Islam, contains 114 suras, or rhythmic verses. Muslims believe they contain the word of God as revealed to Muhammad over a span of 20 years, repeated by Muhammad and written down by followers. The Quran teaches that God (Allah) is all powerful and compassionate. The Quran is written in Arabic and is the ultimate authority on religious as well as legal questions.
The Five Pillars of Islam In your 5 Pillar Groups, each person will contribute to a poster about your assigned pillar. At 11:20, we will put the posters up for a gallery walk.
At Prayer Mosque in Dearborn, Michigan Haram Sharif Grand Mosque, Mecca Pilgrimage to Kaaba in Mecca
Do-Now: Take down these notes on how Islam is a Way of Life Islam is both a religion and way of life. Islamic law governs daily life, and Muslim traditions determine ethical behavior and influence family relations. Over time the Muslims developed a code of laws called the Sharia. The Sharia regulates moral conduct, family life, business practices, government, etc.
Islam and Women Islam granted women protection under the law Although Muslims are spiritually equal, men and women have very different roles and rights. Islam adopted practices from conquered lands such as upper class women wearing veils and secluding themselves. But practice varied by class and region.
Pages 256-260 “Islam Spreads” 1.Worksheet 2.How did the Muslims conquer many lands? Why were they so successful? 3.Why did the empire of the caliphs decline? 4.What issues divided Sunni Muslims and Shiite Muslims? 5.Identify or define the following terms: Umayyads, Abassids, caliph,
AIM: How were the Muslims able to conquer so many lands? Do-Now: Review Questions
Building a Muslim Empire The death of Muhammad in 632 plunged his followers into grief & civil war b/c there was no successor.. “Rightly Guided Caliphs”: The first 4 caliphs had all known Muhammad and made great progress to spread Islam. Shiites Believed that Muhammad’s successor should be his son- in-law Ali. Today Iran/Iraq are majority Shiite. Sunnis Believed that Muhammad’s successor, or caliph, should be a “good” Muslim from Muhammad’s tribe today 90% Muslims are Sunni.
Under the first 4 caliphs, Muslims conquered the Byzantine & Persian Empires. How were they able to do this? Byzantine & Persian Empires weak from fighting each other People welcomed Arab conquerors as liberators Arabs used bold fighting methods (camel cavalry) Islam united people – WHY? Conquered people treated fairly
The Muslim Empire Expands The Umayyad Caliphate, a dynasty of Sunni caliphs, ruled the Muslim Empire from its capital at Damascus from 661 until 750. After the first 4 Caliphs, the Umayyad, and Abbasid Dynasties emerged: Under the Abbasid dynasty, the empire reached its greatest wealth and power, and Muslim civilization flourished. Poets, scholars, philosophers, and entertainers from all over the world came to Baghdad, their capital.
Effects of Muslim Expansion Immediate Effects Islam spreads from the Atlantic coast to the Indus Valley Centers of learning flourish in Cairo, Córdoba, and elsewhere Long-Term Effects Muslim civilization emerges Linking of Europe, Asia, and Africa through Muslim trade network Arabic becomes shared language of Muslims Split between Sunni and Shiites
Muslim Empire Declines Beginning in 850, The Abbasid empire fragmented into many small states, which made them weak. First, the Seljuk Turks invaded the Middle East and adopted Islam. By 1055 they took control of Baghdad, pushing into the Byzantine Empire. Then, in 1216 Genghis Khan and Mongols burned and looted Baghdad. REMEMBER: The fighting between the Seljuk Turks and Byzantines prevented Christian pilgrims from travelling to Jerusalem, leading Pope Urban II to call for the First Crusade (holy wars between Christians and Muslims).