Arabia Arabian Peninsula (water on 3 sides) is dominated by deserts Oasis is green area in a desert fed by underground water
Desert herders who traveled from oasis to oasis for water are known as nomads (unsettled lifestyle)
Nomads on the Arabian Peninsula grouped together in groups called Arab merchants transport goods across the desert in (group of traders who travel together) TRIBES CARAVANS
MECCA Mecca became a very large, wealthy city because it was a crossroads for trade and an important religious site Mecca is the largest and richest town in Arabia
The Kaaba is located in Makkah (Mecca) and significant to Muslims because it is believed to be a sacred place.
Jerusalem The Dome of the Rock, located in Jerusalem is an important religious site for Muslims because it marks the spot where Muhammad ascended to Heaven with Gabriel to meet and speak to God.
Jerusalem Jerusalem is a sacred site for Muslims, Jews, and Christians.
Muhammad The religion of Islam was brought to Arabia through the teachings of Muhammad. Islam: to surrender to the will of God, it is a way of life as well as a religion
Islam Religion = Islam Followers = Muslims God = Allah Prophet = Muhammad
Islam Muhammad upset many merchants of Mecca because he taught that there was only one god (monotheism) He also taught to people to take care of the needy and poor. Central Belief: Allah is the one true God and Muhammad is his prophet
Quran is the holy book of Islam The name given to customs based on Muhammad’s words and deeds is the Sunnah The Quran and Sunnah provide rules for daily living in Muslim life.
Quran list guidelines such as: Do not eat pork Wash before praying Do not drink alcohol
Five Pillars Five Pillars of Islam are acts of worship Muslims must fulfill (Basic Rules) 1.shahada (profession of faith)There is only one God (Allah) 2.Salat (daily worship): five times a day; guided by a precise set of rituals 3.zakat(almsgiving): charity % of a Muslim’s income 4.sawm(fast): from sunrise to sunset during the holy time of Ramadan 5.Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca): hijrah is the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah - undertaken once in a lifetime; reminder of equality between all Muslims
Caliph (leaders) Caliph is a successor to the prophet Muhammad (Messenger of God)
Fatimah The daughter of Muhammad. Her followers were called the Fatimids. They believed that Muhammad's bloodline was important and that Muslims should live simple lives instead of lavish.
Abu Bakr: is the first Caliph and unified Arabia into a Muslim state
Sunni / Shia Sunnis believed any true Muslim could be caliph Abu Bakr was a Sunni
Shiites believed Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, should rule after Muhammad’s death Believed all caliphs should be direct descendant of Muhammad
Cordoba and Baghdad were both centers of culture and learning.
One reason the Arabs were successful in building their empire was that they were friendly toward other religions and cultures How did the Arabs treat the people they conquered? They let them practice their own religion.
Muhammad’s conquest in A.D. 632 took place in? The river marked the easternmost extent of Islamic expansion? the most likely prevented the spread of Islam farther south at this time? Sahara
Muslim Achievements Calligraphy – is a combination of art and literature.
Muslim Achievements Sufism or Islamic mysticism, enriched Muslim literature by infusing religious beliefs into poetry and stories.
Muslim mathematicians developed the branch of mathematics known as algebra.