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Muslim Civilizations 622-1629.

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Presentation on theme: "Muslim Civilizations 622-1629."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muslim Civilizations

2 The Religion of Islam Followers called Muslims
Emerged in the desert Arabian Peninsula where Arab tribes lived. Nomadic herders called Bedouins moved through the deserts to reach seasonal pasturelands. Competition between the two groups led to warfare.

3 Muhammad becomes a prophet
Muhammad born in oasis town of Mecca in 570. Mecca- market town at the crossroads of several caravan routes. Also pilgrimage center where Arabs came to pray at the Kaaba, an ancient temple that housed statues of pagan gods and goddesses.

4 Muhammad’s early life Shepherd among the Bedouins
Led caravans and became a successful merchant. Known for his honesty and was a devoted father and husband.

5 God’s messenger Muhammad troubled by Mecca’s moral ills
When 40 he heard the voice of an angel, Gabriel, calling him to be the messenger of God. He was encouraged by his wife, Khadija, to take the call.

6 Khadija was the first to convert to the faith called Islam.
Islam means “to submit to God” Encouraged Arabs to give up their worship of pagan gods and submit to the one true god, Allah.

7 Great information Mrs. Kelly, I bet this will be on the test!
Muhammad Because his teachings were radical, many did not listen to him. He would be pushed out of Mecca because merchants believed his religion would interfere with trade. Muhammad would leave Mecca and go to Yathrib, a journey called the hijra. Yathrib later renamed Medina- “City of the Prophet” Great information Mrs. Kelly, I bet this will be on the test!

8 The Hijra: A Turning Point
In Medina people agreed to follow his teachings They became a community of Muslims or umma. Brought peace to Medina As his reputation grew, many more converted to Islam But Meccan leaders grew hostile towards the Muslims and prepared for war.

9 Muhammad battles the Meccans
Muhammad wins and returns to Mecca Rededicates the Kaaba to Allah and it becomes the most holy place in Islam. Muhammad works to unite the Arabs under Islam.

10 Teachings of Islam Monotheistic- belief in one god
Quran- sacred text of Islam, teaches that god is all-powerful and compassionate. People are responsible for their own actions. Believe that God had sent other prophets, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, but that Muhammad was the last and greatest prophet.

11 Quran Contains the sacred word of God as revealed to Muhammad.
Teaches God’s will and provides a guide for life. Emphasizes honesty, generosity and social justice

12 Quran Harsh penalties for crimes
On judgment day you will face eternal punishment in hell or eternal bliss in paradise.

13 Muslims follow the Five Pillars of Islam
This is a great test question!!

14 1. Declaration of Faith Called the shahada.
“There is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God.”

15 2. Daily prayer 5 times a day
Ritual washing and then face the holy city of Mecca to pray. Muslims can pray anywhere but often gather in mosques-house of worship.

16 3. Give charity to the poor
Money is collected in the forms of a tax called the zakat. Others give individual donations.

17 4. Fast during Ramadan Fast from sunrise to sunset during the holy month of Ramadan, the month Muhammad received his first revelations from God.

18 5. Make the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca if physically and financially able.
Pilgrims participate in ceremonies commemorating the actions of Muhammad, Abraham and Abraham’s family. Simple attire symbolizes the abandonment of the material world for the sake of God.

19 Another duty is jihad, or struggle in God’s service.
Personal duty for Muslims who focus on overcoming immorality within themselves. Jihad can also be interpreted as a holy war to defend Islam and the Muslim community. (Like the crusades to defend Christianity) A holy war may only be declared by the community, not by an individual Muslim or a small group.

20 People of the Book Muslims, Jews and Christians all worship the same God. Quran teaches that Islam is God’s final and complete revelation. Muslims consider Jews and Christians to be “People of the Book”.

21 Islamic way of life Sharia- Islamic system of law.
Includes interpretation of the Quran, examples of behavior and Muslim traditions. Regulates moral conduct, family life and business practices.

22 Sharia applies religious principles to all legal situations.
Unifies Muslims under a common legal framework.

23 Impact of Islam on Women
Before Islam, limited rights Could not inherit property and had to obey a male guardian. Unwanted daughters could be killed at birth.

24 Extended rights under Islam
Affirmed the spiritual equity of all Muslims. “Whoever does right will enter the garden.” Under the Quran women can reject a marriage offer and you cannot kill daughters. Educate women

25 Spiritually equal but different roles for men and women
Women would inherit less money than men. Women had a harder time getting a divorce. Veiling upper-class women and secluding them in a separate part of the home. (Persian custom) Dress modestly.

26 Muslim/Christian differences
Muslim’s believe that Jesus is a prophet, but not the final prophet. They do not consider him the son of God. Muslim’s pray/ask for help from Allah (God in Arabic). They do not believe in intermediaries (Jesus)

27 Differences cont. Muslim’s believe Jesus did not die on the cross, a Roman soldier did. The crucifixion is not in the Qur’an Muslim’s believe in Mary and the virgin birth and they believe that Jesus raised the dead.

28 Differences cont. Muslim’s believe (as well as Christians) that the Qur’an is pure and unaltered. God Angel Gabriel Muhammad. Muslim’s believe that the Bible has been corrupted by translators and scholars.

29 Other Stuff The Sunna is the only other sacred source for Muslims. It is the practice and examples of the Prophet Muhammad. The Hadith is a reliable report of what the prophet said or did.

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