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Chapter 26 – Phylogeny & the Tree of Life

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1 Chapter 26 – Phylogeny & the Tree of Life

2 26.1 Phylogeny Evolutionary history of a species or a group of related species Made by using evidence from systematics Focuses on classifying organisms & relationships Uses fossils, morphology, genes, & molecular evidence

3 Taxonomy Ordered division of organisms into categories
Based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities & differences

4 Binomial Nomenclature
2 part naming system that consists of the GENUS & the SPECIES Example: Canis familiaris (common dog) Devoloped by Linnaeus

5 Hierarchical classification of organisms:
DOMAIN KINGDOM PHLUM CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES The level of relatedness increases as you move down the list


7 Phylogenetic trees Used to depict hypotheses about evolutionary relationships The branches of the trees reflect the hierarchical classifications of groups nested within more inclusive groups


9 26.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological & molecular data
1) Homologous structures Similarities due to shared ancestry (whale’s flipper) 2) Convergent evolution When 2 organisms developed similarities as they adapted to similar environmental challenges Note due to common ancestor Streamlined bodies of a tuna & dolphin

10 3) Analogous structures
Structures from convergent evolution Wings of butterfly & bat 4) Molecular systematics Uses DNA to determine evolutionary relationships The more alike the DNA sequences of 2 organisms, the more closely related they are

11 26.3 Building of a phylogenetic tree
A cladogram depicts patterns of shared characteristics among taxa & forms the basis of a PT A clade (within a tree) is defined as a group of species that includes an ancestral species & all of its descendants

12 A valid clade is monophyletic, signifying that it consists of the ancestor species and all its descendants

13 A paraphyletic grouping consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants

14 A polyphyletic grouping consists of various species that lack a common ancestor

15 26.4 The rate of evolution in DNA sequences varies from one part of the genome to another By comparing the different sequences, one can investigate relationships between groups of organisms that diverged a long time ago

16 DNA that codes for mitochondrial DNA evolves rapidly
Used to explore recent events DNA that codes for ribosomal RNA changes relatively slowly Useful for investigating relationships between taxa that diverged hundreds of millions of years ago

17 Molecular clocks Methods used to measure the absolute time of evolutionary change Based on the observation that some genes appear to evolve at constant rates


19 Difficulties of molecular clocks
The molecular clock does not run as smoothly as neutral theory predicts Irregularities result from natural selection in which some DNA changes are favored over others Estimates of evolutionary divergences older than the fossil record have a high degree of uncertainty The use of multiple genes may improve estimates

20 26.6 New information continues to revise our understanding of the tree of life Early taxonomists classified all species as either plants or animals Later, five kingdoms were recognized: Monera (prokaryotes), Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia More recently, the three-domain system has been adopted: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya The three-domain system is supported by data from many sequenced genomes





25 Bacteria & Archaea Eukarya Contain prokaryotic organisms
Contain eukaryotic organisms

26 Characteristic Bacteria Achaea Eukarya
Nuclear Envelope No Yes Membrane-bound Organelles Introns Histone proteins used with DNA Circular chromosome

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