Presentation on theme: "BIOREMEDIATION By: Christina Dimitrijevic, Rachel Brown & Ola Johnston."— Presentation transcript:
BIOREMEDIATION By: Christina Dimitrijevic, Rachel Brown & Ola Johnston
A long time ago, nature was able to eliminate all types of pollution (toxins) through the use of naturally occurring micro- organisms, enzymes, chemicals and weather. Advances in technology have allowed the process to eliminate toxins to speed up. Since there are high amounts of Petroleum in soil, bacteria & fungi break it down into less harmful products. The use of other biological organisms like green plants can also neutralize or break down harmful chemicals in polluted soil. BIOREMEDIATION FACTS
“Remediation” means to solve a problem, therefore, “bio- remediate” means to solve a problem using biology. More specifically, the biology they use are organisms to solve pollution and environmental issues such as contaminated soil and groundwater. Bioremediation can occur in 2 different conditions: -Aerobic (with oxygen) -Anaerobic (without oxygen) Natural process which relies on bacteria, fungi and plants to alter contaminants These microbes are capable of using the contaminants as energy sources WHAT IS BIOREMEDIATION?
In-situ -on site removal of contaminants -cheaper, faster and safer than conventional clean ups Ex-situ -carried out above ground -physically extracts the impacted medium Factors that affect In-situ or Ex-situ -contaminant type and characteristics -site characteristics -soil type -cost -is taking the contaminated matter to a different place to be treated as it needs to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Srem6sjemPg IN-SITU VS. EX-SITU
Bioremediation provides biological agents that break down pollutants with fertilizer, oxygen and other conditions that help the microbes (such as bacteria or enzymes) to break the pollutant down quicker. FUN FACT: Bioremediation is commonly used to clean up oil spills! In a polluted site, Bioremediation can work 2 ways: i) Oil Spill- enhancing the growth of microbes that break down the pollution and toxins so that they can break down the pollution quicker ii) Less common environment- microbes that have been specialized are added to the contaminated site to break down the pollutants BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS
Nutrients available (Nitrogen and Phosphorous are necessary for microbial activity and cell growth) Moisture content (required for cell growth and function) pH (survival of the microbial species are limited to a certain pH range) Temperature (controls the rate of enzyme reactions) FACTORS THAT AFFECT BIOREMEDIATION
Aerobic: -Oxygen is available so the micro-organisms can easily convert the toxins and contaminants to carbon and water Anaerobic -Micro-organisms act without oxygen -Chemical compounds can be decomposed by bacteria and that energy given off by the decomposition can be used by the microbes (other micro-organisms) AEROBIC VS ANAEROBIC
Bioremediation is powered by microbial (a minute life form) enzymes found in bacteria, fungi and plants. These biological agents, such as bacteria, can be altered so that they produce certain enzymes to break toxins and various wastes. This is referred to as enzymology which deals with the activity of enzymes. FUN FACT: Enzymes are the main component of pesticides since they can be altered to do various jobs HOW DO ENZYMES HELP?
To get rid of substances that pose to human health Reduce toxic substances in soil and groundwater from human activities To provide cleaner water since water suffers due to all of the pollutants run off into the water Offers an alterative method of detoxifying contaminants which is not harmful for the environment WHY DO WE NEED BIOREMEDIATION?
Advantages -natural -cost effective -toxic chemicals are destroyed or removed (not just separated) -energy saving (green) -less manual supervision Disadvantages -slow (can take months) -heavy metals aren’t removed -soils must be highly permeable (allowing liquids or gases to pass through) ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES