Presentation on theme: "Supervision in Organizations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 10Communicating Effectively
2 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to: Define communication and the communication process.Contrast formal and informal communication.Explain how electronic communication affects the supervisor’s job.List the barriers to effective communication.Describe techniques for overcoming communication barriersList the requirements for active listening.Explain the behaviors necessary for providing effective feedback.
3 Communication defined… Communication is the process by which people send and receive information:It involves the transfer of meaning which must be understood to be successful70 % or all our communication efforts are:misunderstood, misinterpreted, rejected, disliked, distorted, or not heard (in the same language, same culture)!70%
4 What are the most common ways we communicate? Visual ImagesSpoken WordWritten WordBody Language
6 Message Channels The five message channels Face-to-Face Face-to-group TelephoneWrittenThird Party
7 The Communication Process The transferring and understanding of meaningEverything that a manager does involves communication. Once a decision is made, for example, it must be communicated. The best idea, suggestion, or plan cannot take form without communication. For meaning to be transferred and understood, a sender must transmit a message and a receiver must understand the message.Before communication can occur, a sender must have a purpose (message). This message is converted to symbolic form (encoding) and is passed from the sender to a receiver via some medium (channel). The receiver translates the message (decoding) and the result is the transfer of meaning from one person to another. The feedback loop completes this process.
8 Communication Process Terms EncodingSelecting words and their order for a message by a senderMessageA purpose to be conveyedChannelThe medium by which a message travelsDecodingThe translation of a message by a receiverFeedbackA verbal or nonverbal response by a receiver to the sender’s messageNoiseliterally, or figuratively, anything that interferes with a messageThe communication process is a seven-part model: (1) the communication source, (2) the message, (3) encoding, (4) the channel, (5) decoding, (6) the receiver, and (7) feedback.The source is the sender who converts (encodes) a thought or message into symbolic form.The message is the physical product from the source coding.The channel is the medium through which the message travels.The message is directed to a receiver.The message must be translated (decoded) into a form that the receiver can understand.Then, the receiver provides feedback to the sender that indicates whether the intended message was received.This entire process is susceptible to noise, that is, disturbances that interfere with the transmission of the message.
9 Formal vs. Informal Communication Communication that addresses task-related issues and tends to follow the organization’s authority chainExamples:SpeechWritten documentsElectronic behaviorInformal communication (grapevine)Communication moving in any direction, skips authority levels, and is likely to satisfy social needs
10 Written Versus Verbal Communications TangibleVerifiableMore permanentMore preciseMore care is taken with the written wordVerbalLess secureKnown receiptQuicker responseConsumes less timeQuicker feedbackAdvantages of written communication:Written communications are tangible, verifiable, and permanent. Typically, both the sender and the receiver have a copy of the document.And the written word can be more concise, logical, and relevant than the spoken word.Written messages, however, are time consuming to create.Feedback may be delayed, if it is forthcoming at all.Furthermore, sending a written message does not guarantee that it will be received, read, or understood.The advantages of communicating orally are quick transmission and immediate feedback. Since an oral message often passes through a number of people, however, this method is subject to distortion.
11 Nonverbal Communications Body languageNonverbal communication cues such as facial expressions, gestures, and other body movementsVerbal intonationAn emphasis given to word or phrases that conveys meaningEven though it is neither spoken nor written, nonverbal communication can be powerful. The best known areas of nonverbal communication are body language and verbal intonation.Body language refers to gestures, facial expressions, and other movements of the body.Verbal intonation refers to the emphasis someone gives to words or phrases. Oral communication also has a nonverbal component that is likely to carry the greatest impact.As one researcher observed, 55 percent of an oral message is derived from facial expression and physical posture, 38 percent from verbal intonation, and only 7 percent from the actual words used.
12 The Grapevine“The grapevine motto: Good information passes among people fairly rapidly—bad information, even faster!”GrapevineAn unofficial channel of communication that is neither authorized nor supported by the organization.We want to share what we know with others, so good news passes between us fairly fast—bad news, even faster.The unofficial communication channel in many organizations, the grapevine, has four characteristics:1. It is not controlled by management.2. It is perceived to be a more reliable information source than formal communication channels3. It is used to serve the self-interests of those people within it.In an open organization, the grapevine can be quite accurate; in an authoritative culture, it may not be accurate, even though it contains some truth. Because the grapevine cannot be stopped, many managers try to use it to their advantage.
13 Grapevine: Rumors Why Rumors Emerge Four purposes of Rumors Ambiguity being presentAs a response to situations that are important to usUnder conditions that arouse anxietyFour purposes of RumorsReduce anxietyMake sense of fragmented informationServe as a vehicle to organize groupsTo signal sender’s status (power)
14 Barriers to Effective Communication Overcoming Barriers to Effective CommunicationLack of Honesty (lying)Credibility gapLanguageEmotionsListening HabitsLack of FeedbackPerceptionInformation MediumThinking FirstUse FeedbackTaylor Language to the receiverListen activelyConstrain EmotionsWatch Nonverbal CuesIn addition to the noise that can derail the communication process, there are other communication barriers.Filtering is the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver.Selective perception, another barrier, occurs when a person selectively sees or hears communications according to his or her needs, motivations, experiences, background, and personal characteristics.Information overload occurs when a person is exposed to more information than he or she can process.A person’s emotional state when either sending or receiving a message can also cause a barrier to communication.Since the meaning that words carry is dependent on a person’s age, education, and culture, even the words of the message can be a barrier to communication.Finally, communication apprehension can occur when one is required to interact face-to-face.
15 How to Improve Your Communication Effectiveness Steps for effective Communication:Think FirstConstrain EmotionsLearn to ListenTaylor Language to the ListenerMatch Words & ActionsUse Feedback
16 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness Step #1: Think First (Focus your message)Plan before you speakClarify your intent/goals of the communicationInform, persuade, direct, decide…Be specificBe courteous and objective
17 Focus Your Message: Example Unfocused MessageI need it soon.Why are you always late?You need to improve your productivity.Focused MessageI need it by 3 p.m. today.I noticed you came to work 10 minutes late everyday this week.I expect you to complete all assigned tasks by the end of the day today.
18 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness Step #2: Constrain EmotionsEmotions can cloud and distort transference of meaningTip:If emotional, discontinue communication until you have regained composure
19 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness Step #3: Learn to Listen ActivelyRECEIVE – concentrate on what is being said (verbally and non verbally)PERCEIVE – paraphrase your understandingDECODE – analyze and explore the situation to gain further understandingRESPOND - Last – not first! Plan before you speak!
20 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness Step #4: Tailor Language to the ReceiverConsider the person/audience to whom the message is directedSimplify languageBe specific, use concrete termsUse positive languageUse analogies
21 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness Step #5: Match Words & ActionDo what you say you’re going to doEnsure that nonverbal cues match wordsNonverbalEyesGesturesPostureFace indicators
22 Improving Your Communication Effectiveness Step #6: Use FeedbackAsk questions to prevent misunderstandingExample:When you thing that something is missing, ask simple, direct questions to get necessary information
23 Suggestions for Effective Feedback Focus on specific behaviorKeep feedback impersonalKeep feedback goal orientedMake feedback well-timedEnsure understandingDirect negative feedback towards behavior that the receiver can controlThe following six suggestions can promote more effective feedback.1. Focus on specific behaviors. Feedback should be specific rather than general.2. Keep feedback impersonal. Feedback should be descriptive rather than judgmental or evaluative. Focus on the job-related behavior, not the person.3. Keep feedback goal-oriented. Avoid “dumping” on someone. Keep feedback positive. If you have something negative to say, make sure it is directed toward the receiver’s goals.4. Make feedback well-timed. Follow behavior with appropriate feedback as soon as possible. But, avoid making feedback prompt for the sake of “promptness” if you have insufficient information or if you are upset. In such cases, “well timed” could mean “somewhat delayed.”5. Ensure understanding. Keep feedback clear and concise. Remember that successful communication requires that meaning must be not only transferred but also understood.6. Direct negative feedback toward behavior the recipient can control. Keep feedback relevant and directed to behavior that the receiver can do something about..