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TMitTI 1 © Sakari Luukkainen Technological change Market change Standardization Productization Marketing R&D Technology Assessment and Forecasting Market Assessment and Forecasting Innovation process
TMitTI 2 © Sakari Luukkainen Content Introduction Cooperation and Compatibility (Varian chapter 8) Waging a Standards War (Varian chapter 9) Information policy (Varian chapter 10)
TMitTI 3 © Sakari Luukkainen Introduction The telecommunications industry has been a sector with a strong regulation of the spectrum, technologies, services and competition Regulation has been a tool for governments to control the balance between the national and international companies and their market positions in the country National regulative requirements lead in building barriers to entry for foreign competitors The role of the national regulation is decreasing owing to the global trend towards a less regulated international trade The primary goal is currently benefit the consumers through competition in the supply of products and services
TMitTI 4 © Sakari Luukkainen Introduction The goal of one harmonized global telecommunications market will increase competition in the beginning, but may finally lead to a reduced technological variation and consolidation of the industry Regulation can be considered to define the general boundaries of the business, while standardization provides a filtering impact, which reduces the uncertainty by increasing predictability It is assumed that a harmonized market enables economies of scale and lowers the price levels of telecommunications products and services Achieving critical mass, universal service
TMitTI 5 © Sakari Luukkainen Introduction The start of the standardization process is one of the most important signs of the coming technological change By influencing the existence, content, scope and timing of the standards it is possible to have an impact on the companies’ ability to successfully exploit this change ”Standardization is 80 % policy and 20 % technology” A dominant technology emerges out of the competition between the alternative technologies driven by competitors or alliance groups and governmental regulators, each of which has their own goals
TMitTI 6 © Sakari Luukkainen Introduction The technology competition tends to converge finally into a situation where one technology dominates globally The original technological choice had to be sustained, while it is very difficult to switch over to supporting the winning technology later on A parallel development of several competing technological alternatives significantly complicate the innovation process and increases costs
TMitTI 7 © Sakari Luukkainen Introduction Though the standards define a wide set of new services, few of them finally become commercially successful among the the users Too long a standardization process may result in the delay of the new technology from the market - phasing The complementarities between the technologies should be assessed – telecommunications / Internet The usage of market information should be considered more Standards should be introduced in an evolutionary way by building complexity as the market uncertainty decreases
TMitTI 8 © Sakari Luukkainen Standard setting organizations International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Instititute of Electric and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Liberty Alliance World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
TMitTI 9 © Sakari Luukkainen Cooperation and Compatibility Expanded network externalities Reduced uncertainty Reduced consumer lock-in Competition for the market vs in the market Competition on price vs features Competition to offer proprietary extensions Component vs systems competition
TMitTI 10 © Sakari Luukkainen Who wins and who loses from standards? Consumers Complementors Incumbents Innovators
TMitTI 11 © Sakari Luukkainen Tactics in standard setting Do not automatically participate Keep up your momentum Look for logrolling opprtunities Be creative about cutting deals Beware of vague promises Search carefully for blocking patents Consider building an installed base preemptively
TMitTI 12 © Sakari Luukkainen Building alliances – retain relative advantage Time-to-market / Edge in development Manufacturing cost Brand
TMitTI 13 © Sakari Luukkainen Building alliances Assembling allies Interconnection among allies Negotiating a truce
TMitTI 14 © Sakari Luukkainen Standard war When two incompatible technologies struggle to become a de facto standard These wars may end in - truce (56 k modems) - duopoly (video games) - fight to death (VCRs)
TMitTI 15 © Sakari Luukkainen Classification of standard wars Rival Technology Your Technology CompatibleIncompatible Compatible Rival evolutionsEvolutions vs revolution (DVD vs Divx,(Lotus vs Excel, dBaseIV 56k modem, Unix) vs Paradox) Incompatible Revolution vs evolRival revolutions (Nintendo 64 vs PS, Netscape vs Explorer)
TMitTI 16 © Sakari Luukkainen Key Assets in Standards War Control over installed base of customers IPR Ability to innovate First mover advantage Manufacturing abilities Complementary products Brand
TMitTI 17 © Sakari Luukkainen Tactics in standard wars Preemption Expectations management
TMitTI 18 © Sakari Luukkainen After winning Staying on your guard Commoditizing complementary products Competing with your own installed base Protecting your position Leveraging installed base Staying ahead
TMitTI 19 © Sakari Luukkainen After losing Adapters and interconnection Survival pricing Legal approaches
TMitTI 20 © Sakari Luukkainen Competition policy Priciples Implications for strategy Mergers and joint ventures Co-operative standard setting Single-firm conduct
Gender Perspectives in Introduction to Competition Policy Gender Module #6 ITU Workshops on Sustainability in Telecommunication Through Gender & Social.
Strategy in High-Technology Industries
Strategic Management: Value Creation, Sustainability, and Performance, 3e, 2014 Strategy Issues in Industries and Life Cycle Stages Chapter 8.
© Cambridge University Press 2012 AREA OF STUDY 2 UNIT 4 MANAGING PEOPLE AND CHANGE CHAPTER 15 GLOBALISATION THE MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE.
2 External Analysis: The Identification of Industry Opportunities and Threats.
February 14, 2002 Prepared by Ken Song
Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy Chapter 9: Standards Wars.
Strategy in the Global Environment
Chapter 8: Opportunities and Outcomes of International Strategy
Chapter Seven Strategy in High- Technology Industries.
©2009 Prentice Hall 10-1 MGMT 738 Management of Technology Lecture 5 Capturing Value from Innovation.
2 Chapter 2: External Analysis: The Identification of Industry Opportunities and Threats BA 469 Spring Term, 2005 Professor Dowling.
SIMS Standards Wars Hal R. Varian. SIMS Examples Historic –RR gauges –Edison v. Westinghouse –NBC v. CBS in color TV Recent –3Com v. Rockwell/Lucent –Microsoft.
Strategy #7. The Effects of Standards Expanded network externalities Reduced uncertainty and consumer lock-in Competition on price Proprietary extensions.
Chapter 6 Competitive Strategy and the Industry Environment.
Tailoring Strategies to Fit Specific Industry and Company Situations
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