2 DNARNA Proteins Traits Central DogmaDNARNA Proteins TraitsThis is the central theme of molecular genetics.These are the steps needed to get from a DNA double helix to your blue eyes.
3 Central Dogma How do you get from DNA to RNA to Proteins to Traits? DNA RNA PROTEINS TRAITSTranscription Translation controlinto Amino Acids
4 Review DNA can be found in the nucleus. Ribosomes make proteins and are found in the cytoplasm.How does DNA (which doesn’t leave the nucleus) get to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm?It becomes mRNA and leaves through the nuclear pores.
5 DNA vs. RNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Deoxyribose sugar Double stranded N bases = A,T,C,GFound in the nucleus1 typeContains a nucleotide = phosphate + sugar + N baseRibonucleic AcidRibose sugarSingle strandedN bases = A,U,C,GUracil replaces ThymineFound in the nucleus and cytoplasm3 types: mRNA, tRNA & rRNAContains a nucleotide = phosphate + sugar + N base.
7 Types of RNA Messenger RNA mRNA Carries info from DNA and delivers it to ribosome – codon.Ribosomal RNArRNAStructural component of ribosomesTranslates mRNA sequences and signals tRNATransfer RNAtRNATransfers the correct amino acid for the protein – anticodon.
8 How does the DNA become mRNA? Through a process called Transcription.Steps:RNA Polymerase binds to a region of DNA that signals it to start making RNA.RNA Polymerase unwinds and unzips the gene segment on DNA.One strand of DNA acts as a template for making mRNA.Enzyme moves along the DNA bases in one direction. It reads each nucleotide and pairs it with a complementary RNA nucleotide.Process continues until enzyme reaches a terminator (stop signal.)Enzyme detaches from DNA and releases mRNA from the nucleus.
9 DNA - RNA What would the mRNA strand be if the DNA template is: (remember that A now pairs with U and C still pairs with G)ATC CAG TCA GAT CTA CCG TGA CTG GGA
10 Transcription ReviewDNA makes proteins, which control all of our traits, but DNA cannot leave the nucleus.So to get it’s message to the protein factories (ribosomes) in the cytoplasm. It makes mRNA.The enzyme, RNA polymerase exposes a DNA template and adds one RNA nucleotide at a time to make an mRNA molecule.
11 Transcription Review cntd. Eventually RNA polymerase will reach a spot on the DNA that signals it to stop making the mRNA strand.After it reaches this point it can let go and leave the nucleus.From the nucleus it goes into the cytoplasm and attaches to a ribosome.
12 Translation at the ribosome Step where the mRNA code is translated into an amino acid sequence – a protein.A series of amino acids held together by peptide bonds.20 amino acids – 8 essential a.a.’s - meaning your body cannot make them you must consume them from food.
13 Translation @ ribosome w/mRNA & tRNA RNA is read 3 nitrogen bases at a timeEach triplet of bases is called a codonEach 3 letter codon is a code for an amino acidA series of 50-5,000 amino acids make up a protein.
14 Translation/Protein Synthesis Steps Once the mRNA codon sequence leaves the nucleus it attaches to the ribosome.The ribosome (which is partly made up of an rRNA molecule) travels down the mRNA sequence until it finds a start spot called a start codonThere is only 1 start codonAUG --- it codes for the amino acid, Methionine.The start codon is the spot where the amino acids start to make proteins.
15 Translation/Protein Synthesis Steps After the ribosome finds the start codon a transfer RNA molecule (tRNA) attaches to the codon by an anti-codon and brings an amino acid to the ribosome.The tRNA anticodon carries the amino acid.Amino acids are deposited onto the mRNA strand until it reaches one of 3 stop codons.UAA, UAG, UGAAfter a stop codon is reached the animo acid chain is let go and folded and modified into a protein.
16 Translation/Protein Synthesis How does the tRNA molecule know what amino acid to drop off?Anti-codon of tRNA must match codon of mRNA.Each codon codes for a particular amino acid being carried by the tRNA anticodon.To determine what amino acid matches which codon refer to the codon chart.
19 Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA vs. RNA ReviewDeoxyribonucleic acidRibonucleic acidDNADouble strandedMade up of repeating units called nucleotides.Contains the 5 C (pentose) sugar Deoxyribose.Found in the nucleus4 nitrogen basesAdenine, Guanine, Cytosine, ThymineRNASingle StrandedMade up of repeating units called nucleotides.Contains the 5 C sugar ribose.Found in the nucleus & cytoplasm4 nitrogen basesAdenine, Guanine, Cytosine, uracil3 formsmRNA, rRNA, tRNA