Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Biology 25: Human Biology Prof. Gonsalves"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 10 Biology 25: Human Biology Prof. Gonsalves Los Angeles City CollegeLoosely Based on Mader’s Human Biology,7th edition
2 Kidneys remove nitrogen containing waste from blood. Excretory (Urinary) SystemComponents: Kidneys, bladder, urethra, and associated ducts.Functions:Kidneys remove nitrogen containing waste from blood.Urine with waste is temporarily stored in bladder.Excretion of urine.Homeostatic Role:Regulates water levels in body.Removes excess waterHelps conserve water
4 Kidney FunctionRegulation of ECF through formation of urine. (primary function).Regulate volume of blood plasma.BP.Regulate concentration of waste products in the blood.Regulate concentration of electrolytes.Na+, K+, and HC03-.Regulate pH.Secrete erythropoietin.
5 Micturition ReflexActions of the internal urethral sphincter and the external urethral sphincter are regulated by reflex control center located in the spinal cord.Filling of the urinary bladder activates the parasympathetic neurons causing rhythmic contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the internal urethral sphincter.Voluntary control over the external urethral sphincter.
14 Renal Blood Vessels Afferent arteriole: Glomeruli: Efferent arteriole: Delivers blood into the glomeruli.Glomeruli:Capillary network produces filtrate that enters the urinary tubules.Efferent arteriole:Delivers blood from glomeruli to peritubular capillaries.
15 Renal Blood Vessels Peritubular capillaries: Deliver blood to vasa recta.Juxtamedullary nephrons.Deliver blood to veins.Cortical nephrons.
25 Type of Nephrons Cortical nephron: Osmolarity of 300 mOsm/l. Involved in solute reabsorption.Juxtamedullary nephron:Important in the ability to produce a concentrated urine.
26 Glomerular Filtration Membrane Basement membrane:Filtrate must pass through the basement membrane:Thin glycoprotein layer.Negatively charged.Podocytes:Foot pedicels form small filtration slits.
27 Glomerular Filtration Mechanism of producing ultrafiltrate under hydrostatic pressure.GFR (glomerular filtration rate):Volume of filtrate produced by both kidneys each minute.Averages 180 L/day.
28 Juxtaglomerular Apparatus Region in each nephron where the afferent arteriole comes in contact the the thick ascending limb of the loop.Granular cells:Secrete renin.Converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.Initiates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.Negative feedback.Macula densa:Inhibit renin secretion when blood [Na+] in blood increases.
30 Regulation of GFRVasoconstriction or dilation of afferent arterioles affects the rate of blood flow to the glomerulus.Affects GFR.Mechanisms to regulate GFR:Sympathetic Nervous System.Autoregulation.Hormonal:Renin-angiotension.
33 Renal Acid-Base Regulation Kidneys help regulate blood pH by excreting H+ and reabsorbing HC03-.Most of the H+ secretion occurs across the walls of the PCT in exchange for Na+.Antiport mechanism.Normal urine normally is slightly acidic because the kidneys reabsorb almost all HC03- and excrete H+.Returns blood pH back to normal range.
34 Reabsorption of HCO3- Apical membranes are impermeable to HCO3-. Reabsorption is indirect.HCO3- combines with H+ to form H2C0-, which is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase (ca) located in the apical cell membrane of PCT.As [C02] increases in the filtrate, ca forms H2C03.H2C03 dissociates to HCO3- and H+.Shunt HCO3- generated within tubule cell to peritubular capillary.
36 Urinary Buffers Nephron cannot produce a urine pH < 4.5. IN order to excrete more H+, the acid must be buffered.H+ secreted into the urine tubule and combines with HPO4-2 or NH3.HPO4-2 + H H2PO4-2NH3 + H NH4+
39 Glucose and Amino Acid Reabsorption Filtered glucose and amino acids are normally reabsorbed by the nephrons.Carrier mediated transport:Saturation.Exhibit Tm.Renal transport threshold:Minimum [plasma] of a substance that results in excretion of that substance in the urine.
40 Electrolyte Balance Kidneys regulate Na+, K+, H+, Cl-, HC03-, PO4-2. Control of Na+ important in regulation of blood volume and pressure.Control of plasma of K+ important in proper function of cardiac and skeletal muscles.Match ingestion with urinary excretion.
41 Role of Aldosterone 90% K+ reabsorbed in early part of the nephron. When aldosterone is absent, no K+ is excreted in the urine.Final [K+] controlled in CD by aldosterone.High [K+] or low [Na+] stimulates the secretion of aldosterone.Only means by which K+ is secreted.
42 Na+ Reabsorption 2% is excreted (30 g/day). In the absence of aldosterone, 80% remaining Na+ is reabsorbed.2% is excreted (30 g/day).Final [Na+] controlled in CD by aldosterone.
43 ANP Produced by atria due to stretching of walls. Antagonist to aldosterone.Increases [Na+] excretion.
44 Na+, K+, and H+ Relationship Na+ reabsorption in CD creates electrical gradient for K+ secretion.Plasma [K+] indirectly affects [H+].When ECF [ H+] increases, H+ moves into the cell, causing K+ to diffuse into the ECF.In severe acidosis, H+ is secreted at the expense of K+.
46 Diuretics Inhibit NaCl transport out of the ascending limb of the LH. Increase urine volume excreted.Increase the proportion of glomerular filtrate that is excreted as urine.Loop diuretics:Inhibit NaCl transport out of the ascending limb of the LH.Thiazide diuretics:Inhibit NaCl reabsorption in the DCT.Ca inhibitors:Prevent H20 reabsorption when HC0s- is reabsorbed.Osmotic diuretics:Increase osmotic pressure of filtrate.