Presentation on theme: "Three Branches of Government"— Presentation transcript:
1 Three Branches of Government Chapter 10 Lesson 2Pages
2 Objectives Explain the purpose of the Constitution. Compare the powers and functions of the three branches of government.
3 Preamble We the people of the United States, In order to form a more perfect Union,Establish justice,Insure domestic tranquility,Provide for the common defense,Promote the general welfare, andSecure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity,Do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
4 PreambleThe introduction to the Constitution states the purposes for writing it.The writers wanted to set up a fairer form of government.They wanted to secure peace & freedom for themselves and for future generations.
6 Written by Gouverneur Morris First written:“We the people of the States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, . . .”Changed to:“We the People of the United States”Wanted to show Americans were citizens of the nation first and of the states second.
7 Purpose of the Constitution Preamble explains basic functions of the U.S. government.Establish justice (fairness)Ensure domestic tranquility (peace within the country)Provide the common defense (defend the nation against enemies)
8 Purpose of the Constitution Must promote the general welfare (work for the common good of the nation)Secure liberty (freedom) for the nation’s people and future generations
9 Powers of the government The Constitution limits the powers of the government.The federal government is given power to govern the nation.But it protects the states and citizens from that power.
10 Why does the Preamble to the Constitution mention liberty & justice? The writers wanted to make sure the Constitution protected individual rights.
11 Three Branches of Government LegislativeExecutiveJudicialLawmaking branchArticle IEnforce lawsArticle IICourt SystemArticle IIIRaising an army & navyVeto, or reject, bills passed by CongressDecide if laws are working fairlyDeclaring warCommander in chief of the militaryStates had courtsCoining & printing moneyLaws be faithfully executedFederal Court cases: Constitution, treaties, National lawsMakes laws that control commerce, or tradeDecide cases between states
12 The Legislative Branch Two Houses SentateCitizens voteEach state has 2 senatorsServe 6 year termsHouse of RepresentativesCitizens voteDepends on populationLimited to 435 membersOklahoma has ____Serve 2 year terms
13 What are the main powers of Congress? Make lawsRaise an army & navyDeclare warControl commerce (trade)
14 The Executive Branch President of the United States Citizens vote for electors, who vote for the PresidentThe group of electors is called The Electoral College
15 Role of the President Must be 35 years of age Been born in the United StatesMust have lived in the U.S. for 14 yearsElected to a four year termCan VETO (reject) bills passed by CongressHead of the military (Commander and Chief)MAIN POWER take care that the laws be faithfully executed
16 IMPEACH What if the President does not do his duty? Congress could impeach the PresidentImpeach – accuse the President of crimes.If found guilty, the President could be removed from office.
17 Who was America's first President to be impeached? Andrew Johnson, the seventeenth President of the United States, held office from 1865 to 1869, but his term was almost shorter as he became the first American President to be impeached.In 1868 the House of Representatives impeached Andrew Johnson due to his views on the south and the Confederates, but he was acquitted by a single vote.The only other President to be impeached was Bill Clinton on December by the House of Representatives on grounds of perjury.Bill Clinton was also acquitted, there have not been any successful impeachments of American Presidents to this date.Richard Nixon was facing imminent impeachment but resigned before the proceedings took place.
18 Judicial Branch This is the court system Delegates created the Federal Court SystemWould decide cases that dealt with the Constitution, treaties, and national lawsAlso decide cases between states and between citizens of different states.MAIN POWER decide whether laws are working fairly
19 Supreme Court The highest court in the United States It head the judicial branchPresident would nominate Supreme Court justices (judges)Senate votes to approve themJustices stay in office for lifeThis allowed them to make decisions without worry of losing jobToday, there are 9 Supreme Court Justices
20 Power of Supreme CourtThey can strike down any law that goes against the ConstitutionCongress can only restore a law that has been struck down if they change the ConstitutionThe government must apply laws equally to every person called rule of law
21 Changing the Constitution Delegates knew time may require the Constitution to be changedAgreed on a system for how citizens could add amendments – changes
22 Amendments Proposed by a two-thirds vote in Congress or By a national convention called for by two-thirds votes of the states and approved by CongressFor amendment to pass: three-fourths of all the states must approve itThis system gives representatives time they need to study an amendment
23 Separation of PowerSeparation of Powers – divides the powers of the federal government among three branchesThis keeps any one branch from controlling the government
24 Limits of PowerSupreme Court limits Congress by declaring laws unconstitutionalExecutive Branch limits Congress by vetoing bills passed by CongressCongress limits the Executive branch by override of a veto with a two-thirds vote, also they have the power to impeach
25 What branch is responsible for enforcing laws? The executive branch
26 What branch has the power to approve the appointments of Supreme Court justices? The legislative branch
27 What branch decides whether laws are followed by Congress? The judicial branch
28 What branch makes all national laws? The legislative branch
29 What branch has the power to veto bills? The executive branch
30 What branch has the power to impeach the President? The legislative branch
31 What does it mean that the United States of America is a republic? It means the United States has a form of government in which the people elect representatives to govern the country.
32 Why are checks and balances important? It keeps any one branch from becoming too powerful.
33 How do they help each branch of the federal government make more thoughtful decisions? Each branch is encouraged to make more thoughtful decisions because its powers can be checked by the other branches.
34 What was the original purpose of the Constitutional Convention of 1787? To fix the Articles of Confederation
35 This is the official written plan of government of the U.S.? Constitution
36 A form of government in which people elect representatives to govern the country. republic
37 The system by which each branch of government can limit the power of the other two branches. Checks and Balances
38 What is the purpose of the Constitution according to its Preamble? To create a fairer form of government
39 How can the legislative branch check the power of the executive branch? Congress can override the President’s veto of a bill
40 How can the judicial branch check the power of the legislative branch? The Supreme Court can rule that a law passed by Congress is unconstitutional.
41 How can the executive branch check the power of the judicial branch? The President nominates Supreme Court justices.
42 How can the judicial branch check the power of the executive branch? The Supreme Court can rule that the President’s actions are unconstitutional.
43 How can the executive branch check the power of the legislative branch? The President can veto a bill passed by Congress.