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Institutions and their role in shaping European Security

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1 Institutions and their role in shaping European Security
INSTITUTIONALISM Institutions and their role in shaping European Security

2 Contemporary approaches to institutionalism
Institutions include any form of constraint (formal or informal) that human beings devise to shape their interaction reduce uncertainty by establishing a stable structure to human interaction Contemporary approaches to institutionalism Historical institutionalism (1960s) Rational choice instutionalism (late 1970s) Sociological institutionalism (late 1970s)

3 Historical institutionalism
formal political institutions matter: but which ones and how? the institutional structure of the polity is a crucial factor behind behaviour and outcomes ‘structuralism’ (institutions) vs. ‘functionalism’ (needs) a state consists of institutions which are able to influence group conflict

4 rules, conventions, norms, etc.
Key concepts of historical institutionalism Institutions: organizations rules, conventions, norms, etc. provide an environment for individuals, who benefit by following certain patterns of behaviour disproportionately distribute power across social groups are central in determining historical development are never a single factor

5 Rational choice institutionalism
draws on ‘new economics of organization’ and ‘theories of agency’ institutions are both object and consequence of choice development of institutions lowers the cost of undertaking the same activity without them superiors (principals) monitor and influence behaviour of their subordinates (agents)

6 Relevant actors have a fixed set of preferences or tastes
Key concepts of rational choice institutionalism Relevant actors have a fixed set of preferences or tastes Politics is a series of collective action dilemmas Institutions structure interactions, providing actors with exchange mechanisms, which leads to potentially better outcomes Institutions are created by voluntary agreement by actors who share common goals/values, in order to realize them (gains from cooperation => origins of institutions)

7 Sociological institutionalism
Originates from the subfield of organization theory Institutions are: - culturally-specific - moral templates Individuals internalize the norms associated with institutional roles (=> identity and preferences) Individuals perceive their actions in a particular context

8 Studies of international institutions
Early postwar period (LoN, UN, GATT, IMF) Behaviouralism Neofunctionalism International regimes

9 Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye
Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition (1977) international issues, developments in technology, global trade will create a new environment where states and their use of force will be of little importance After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (1984) ‘prisoner’s dilemma’ hegemony: a contributing factor, not a necessary condition international regimes collective action transaction costs (bounded rationality) uncertainty and information deficit

10 Institutional theories
liberal institutionalism collective security theory critical theory

11 Institutionalism vs. realism
Debates since 1980s How institutions matter? Do they really have an impact on state behaviour? Collaboration vs. coordination Interactive theories (domestic politics) Institutionalism vs. realism John Mearsheimer (1994) insitutions are only reflecting distribution of power liberal institutionalism ignores relative gains collective security theory is unrealistic critical theory aims at replacing realism with utopian expectations the three theories have inadequate empirical record

12 International theory and security relations
states cooperate to pursue common interests harmony not implied reciprocity, accountability, cooperative strategies information and signalling mechanisms Security institutions: military force use of threat vital interests Security institutions: effects strategies / state security policies outcomes (altering power resources) influence (soft power) ideas and norms

13 NATO: still here? CFSP/ESDP OSCE
level of institutionalization exclusive vs. inclusive model threats and risks adaptability: hybrid institutions the nature of European environment member-state commitment hybrid nature => security management CFSP/ESDP substantive policy outcome explicit aspirations exogenous and endogenous factors functional and normative principles internalizaton OSCE 1994 institutionalization of CSCE reflecting changing scope of operations

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