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1922-1941. Introduction: To Do (26 pts):  Define 8 terms  List the dictators in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany  Pg. 395 (1-2)

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Presentation on theme: "1922-1941. Introduction: To Do (26 pts):  Define 8 terms  List the dictators in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany  Pg. 395 (1-2)"— Presentation transcript:

1 1922-1941

2 Introduction: To Do (26 pts):  Define 8 terms  List the dictators in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany  Pg. 395 (1-2)


4 Terms  Dictator: a ruler with complete power in a country  Fascist: a member of a political party who supports extreme nationalism and a dictator  Nazi: a member of a political party in Germany, led by Adolf Hitler  Appeasement: the policy of giving in to someone’s demands in order to keep peace

5 To Start Off…  US economy started out strong in the 20s Europe was still repairing damage from WWI ○ Serious economic factors ○ Some nations tried to avoid changing governments… Europeans turned to strong leaders (dictators) ○ Wanted their nations to be strong again ○ Idea: strong leaders = strong country

6 Communism in the S.U.  1917 – Communist revolution in Russia Russia became the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Soviet Union)  Joseph Stalin Powerful dictator / cruel leader Citizens did not / could not go against him 10 million were killed under his rule

7 Fascism in Italy  Italy – not defeated in WWI Government and economy was weakened ○ Labor strikes and riots ○ People turned to Benito Mussolini for change  Benito Mussolini (Fascist) Spoke to his followers about the glories of war Became prime minister in 1922

8 Nazism in Germany  Germany – Treaty of Versailles effects Had to give conquered lands back Fined huge reparations Could not build up their military Had to take 100% of blame for the war  National Socialist Party took over Nazi = member of this party Leader = Adolf Hitler

9 Nazism in Germany  Adolf Hitler Became chancellor of Germany Reminded people about Treaty of Versailles effects ○ Allies expected Germany to pay the cost of the war Other opinions: ○ German people were better than other people Should rule the world Germans = master race

10 Nazism in Germany  Adolf Hitler Other opinions: ○ Other groups were lower than Germans ○ Blamed Jewish people / Communists for Germany’s problems ○ 1935: Jews can no longer be German citizens Jews = scapegoats Children were not allowed to attend German schools Forced to wear badges (Star of David) = easy identification

11 The Road to War  Hitler = believed Germany could become most powerful country Began moving beyond Germany’s boundaries ○ Crossed into the Rhineland (between France and Germany) ○ France and Great Britain complained No action was taken Policy = appeasement ○ 1938 = Germany took control of Austria Demanded Czechoslovakia give up the Sudetenland

12 The Road to War  France and Britain – had treaties to protect Czechoslovakia Leaders met in Munich (Germany) Signed a pact ○ Hitler could keep the Sudetenland


14 War Breaks out Again  1939 – German forces took control of all of Czechoslovakia Hitler – next target was Poland  August: Stalin and Hitler join forces Agree to attack / divide Poland September 1, 1939 Great Britain and France realized appeasement was failing ○ Declared war

15  1940: Germany invaded: Denmark Norway Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg France  Britain faced Hitler’s forces alone

16 To Do  Pg. 391  Pg. 393 (1-2)  Pg. 394 (1-3)  Exercise 88


18 Terms  Militarism: the policy of strong military actions taken by the leaders of a country  Puppet State: a government that is under the control of another, stronger power

19 For the most part…  Japan had been peaceful Democracy Military leaders took control (early 1930s) ○ Began to rise as a military power

20 Japan Expands its Empire  Japan = military leaders gaining control Wanted Japan to be the most feared military force in Asia ○ MILITARISM 1930s – Japan needed natural resources to keep industries running ○ Japan – few natural resources (oil / coal)

21 Japan Expands its Empire  1931 – Japan attacked Manchuria Manchuria – coal / natural resource rich Puppet State established ○ 6 years later – Japan attacked China ○ US became worried… did nothing


23 The Seeds of War  By 1938 – Japan controlled most of eastern China Leaders: wanted all of E. Asia under Japan’s control ○ Natural resources Oil was needed to run industries and armies Japan became friendly with Nazi Germany / Fascist Italy  Anti-Communist agreement signed: Japan agreed to become a world power with Germany and Italy

24 To Do  Pg. 397 (1-3)  Exercise 90


26 Terms  Cash and Carry Policy: a plan that let nations at war buy goods that they could pay cash for and then carry home  Lend-Lease Plan: to lend or lease supplies to a country whose defense is needed to protect the United States

27 The US in WWII  US did not want to be pulled into another war Feared alliances  Could see growing signs of war in Europe and Asia Did the US have a duty to help other countries?

28 Staying out of War  1935-1937: Congress passed several laws to STAY OUT OF WAR People wanted US to be a peaceful nation What policy is this? ○ US had plenty of problems, solve US problems rather than those of the world Congress: Cash and carry policy ○ Nations at war could buy goods as long as they could pay cash

29 Staying out of War  Roosevelt: Did not agree with isolationism ○ US should be a good neighbor to world countries ○ Believed US should stand up to dictators Pressing problem = Great Depression

30 The End of Isolation  Before 1940 – no president had run for a 3 rd term 1940 – different (war in Europe) FDR’s experience as a leader was necessary if the US was to go to war  FDR – promised people that he would keep US out of war 1940: began 3 rd term

31 The End of Isolation  US could see how dangerous Hitler was US had to keep Hitler out of the W. Hemisphere Asked Congress for a peacetime draft  Winston Churchill (Britain’s leader) Asked US for help against Nazi Germany ○ Did not have enough money to buy weapons  Congress passed: Lend – Lease Plan

32 The End of Isolation  Congress passed: Lend – Lease Plan President could “lend” supplies for defensive purposes Isolationists disagreed US sent ships / guns / other supplies to Britain ○ Became dangerous ○ German submarines began sinking American ships ○ October 1941 – Germany sank a US Navy ship War was coming closer each day

33 Pearl Harbor  Remember: Japan was expanding into Asia Roosevelt stopped trade with Japan ○ Banned oil shipments Japan needed oil to keep tanks, trucks, airplanes working US and Japan began talking in November 1941 ○ Neither side was compromising

34 Pearl Harbor  Talks were not productive Japan began to plan US attacks Navy base = Pearl Harbor, Hawaii ○ Japan – it would take the US a while to rebuild forces after the attack December 7, 1941: Japan attacked Pearl Harbor ○ Destroyed 19 American ships Killed 2,400 Americans

35 Pearl Harbor  December 8, 1941: War declared on Japan


37 To Do  Pg. 400  Pg. 401 (1-3)  Exercise 91

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