21 EPIGASTRIC HERNIA : A defect in the midline between xiphoid process and umbilicus. It is mainly extraperitonial fat. CLINICAL FEATURE : *PAINLESS *PAINFUL *REFERD PAIN. TREATMENT :Surgery.
22 INCISIONAL HERNIA CAUSES : 1. Factors related to wound closure INCISIONAL HERNIA CAUSES : 1.Factors related to wound closure *The suture material *The method of closure *The drainage through the wound Coughing ,Vomiting ,Abdominal distention Peritonitis General condition of the patient Associated illness.
23 HERNIAS IN CHILDERN. INGUINAL. FEMORAL. UMBLICAL HERNIAS IN CHILDERN *INGUINAL. *FEMORAL. *UMBLICAL Inguinal Hernia 90% in males It is due to patent procuss vaginalis. Obstructed Strangulated.
24 RARE HERNIAS 1.Richter’s Hernia: portion of the circumference of the intestine is strangulated. 2.Littrle’s Hernia: It contains Meckle’s diverticulum. 3.Interstetial Hernia: The hernial sac passes between the layers of the abdominal wall. 4.Spigelian Hernia :Interparietal hernia at the level of arcuate line. 5.Maydl’s Hernia: 2 loops of intestine are incarcerated in the sac with strangulation of intaabdominal part.
31 VARICOCELE : dilated and tortuous veins in pampiniform plexus VARICOCELE : dilated and tortuous veins in pampiniform plexus. UNDESCENDED TESTIS : Testis which is in its anatomical path but has failed to reach the scrotum.
32 ECTOPIC TESTIS : Which has descended to an abnormal site ECTOPIC TESTIS : Which has descended to an abnormal site . *Superficial Inguinal pouch *Femoral Triangle . *Perineum . *Base of the penis .
33 COMPLICATIONS : >Hernia >Torsion >Trauma >Tumor >infertility TUMOUR : Painless testicular swelling Loss of testicular sensation.