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Unit I AP World History.

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1 Unit I AP World History

2 First things first: Beginnings in History
Supplementing your HW packet First things first: Beginnings in History Assessment Weight on the AP Exam = 5%

3 Works Cited for “The Big Picture”
Strayer, Robert W. Ways of the World: A Global History with Sources. 2nd Edition. Boston, MA: Beford/ St. Martins, Print.

4 “The Big Picture” Features “must-know events” in AP World History
Summarizes key content

5 Focusing in on the beginning…
Humans have long been storytellers. Our stories – myths, legends, “fairy tales,” have sought to distill meaning from experience while providing guidance for the living. Much the same can be said of modern historians, although they must operate within accepted rules of evidence. But all tellers of stories – ancient and modern alike – have to decide at what point to begin their accounts and what major turning points in those narratives to highlight.

6 Time Out! What is your story?
YOU! Let’s hear YOUR story! Humanity: What to include? What is your story? Where would you begin? With you? Your family? What would you include – your turning points? For world historians seeking to tell the story of humankind as a whole, four major “beginnings,” each of them an extended historical process, have charted the initial stages of the human journey.

7 The human story begins… 4 stages
The Emergence of Humankind The Globalization of Humankind The Revolution of Farming and Herding The Turning Point of Civilization

8 The Emergence of Humankind
According to archaeologists & anthropologists, the evolutionary line of descent leading to Homo sapiens, diverged from that leading to chimpanzees, our closest primate relatives, some 5 million to 6 million years ago, and it happened in eastern and southern Africa. There, perhaps 20 or 30 different species emerged, all of them members of the Homininae (or hominid) family of human-like creatures. What they all shared in common was bipedalism, the ability to walk upright on two legs.

9 The Emergence of Humankind
In 1976, the archaeologist Mary Leakey uncovered in what is now Tanzania a series of footprints of three such hominid individuals, preserved in cooling volcanic ash about 3.5 million years ago. Two of them walked side by side, perhaps holding hands. om/people/mary- leakey

10 The Emergence of Humankind
Over time, these hominid species changed. Their brains grew larger, as evidenced by the size of their skulls. About 2.3 million years ago, a hominid creature known as Homo habilis began to make and use simple stone tools. Others started to eat meat, at least occasionally. Homo erectus, began to migrate out of Africa, and their remains have been found in various parts of Eurasia. This species is also associated with the first controlled use of fire.

11 Eventually, all of these earlier hominid species died out, except one
Homo sapiens, ourselves!

12 Emergence of Humankind
Although under constant debate, it is widely believed that we, too, first emerged in Africa and quite recently, probably no more than 250,000 years ago. For a long time, all of the small number of Homo sapiens, lived in Africa but sometime after 100,000 years ago, they too began to migrate out of Africa onto the Eurasian landmass, then to Australia, and into the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific Islands. The great experiment of human history had begun!

13 Visualize it!

14 Globalization of Humankind
Today, every significant landmass on earth is occupied by human beings, but it was NOT always the case. A mere half million years ago, our species did NOT even exist. Only 100,000 years ago that species was limited to Africa and numbered, some scholars believe, fewer than 10,000 individuals. These ancient ancestors of ours, rather small in stature and not fast on foot, were armed with a very limited technology of stone tools with which to confront the many dangers of the world.

15 Then in perhaps the most amazing tale in all of human history…
They moved from this very modest and geographically limited role in the scheme of things to a worldwide and increasingly dominant presence. What kinds of societies, technologies, and understandings of the world accompanied, and perhaps, facilitated, this globalization of humankind?

16 The Globalization of Humankind
The phase of human history during which these initial migrations took place is known as the Paleolithic era. Paleolithic Literally means “old stone age” Refers generally to a food collecting or gathering and hunting way of life Before agriculture allowed people to grow food or raise animals deliberately Lasted until about 11,000 years ago

17 Paleolithic Era Represents over 95% of the time human beings have inhabited the earth However, it accounts for only about 12% of the total number of people who have lived on the planet. During this time, Homo sapiens colonized the world, making themselves at home in every environmental niche, from the frigid Arctic to the rain forests of Central Africa and Brazil, in mountains, deserts, and plains.

18 The Revolution of Farming & Herding
In 2012, almost all of the world’s 7 billion people lived from the food grown on farms and gardens and from domesticated animals raised for their meat, milk, or eggs. BUT before 11,000 years ago, NO ONE survived in this way. Then repeatedly and fairly rapidly, at least in world history terms, human communities in parts of the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and the Americas began the laborious process of domesticating animals and selecting seeds to be planted.

19 A momentous accomplishment: a first in human history
The Agricultural Revolution

20 Agricultural Revolution
Marks the single most significant & enduring transformation in human history Although much shorter than the Paleolithic era that preceded it, farming and raising animals allowed for a substantial increase in human numbers.

21 Agriculture Revolution: Factors to consider
Agriculture would vary according to the environment: Climate Soil Various wild plants and animals

22 Gardens and Farms Root crops – potatoes in the Andes
Tree crops – banans Wild grains – rice, wheat or corn

23 What if you couldn’t farm?
In more arid areas where farming was difficult, some people, known as pastoralists, came to depend on herds of domesticated animals. Because they moved frequently & in regular patterns to search for pasturelands, they are often called nomads.

24 Point of Interest: In the Americas…
Regarding animal husbandry, the Americas were at a distant disadvantage, for there were few large animals that could be tamed. NO goats NO sheep NO pigs NO horses NO camels No cattle

25 Another point of interest: Afroeurasia
Big Idea: Conflict is inherent in the nature of humans. In the Afro-Eurasian world, conflicts between settled agricultural peoples and more mobile pastoral peoples represented an enduring pattern of interaction across the region.

26 The Turning Point of Civilization
Remember the 4 key stages in early human development?? 1st: The emergence of humankind 2nd: The globalization of humankind 3rd: The Revolution of Farming & Herding 4th: The Turning Point of Civilization

27 The Turning Point of Civilization
The most prominent and powerful human communities to emerge out of the Agricultural Revolution were those often designated as “civilizations”. What’s a civilization? More complex societies that were based in bustling cities and governed by formal states (governments.) Not until several thousand years AFTER the beginning of agriculture did the first cities and states emerge, around B.C.E. *that’s about 5,000 – 6,000 years ago!!!!! Along key rivers Tigris & Euphrates, Nile, Indus, Huang He

28 OKAY back to the HW packet
Unit 1

29 Geographic Orientation/ Human Origins & First Migrations
Key Question: Answer… Where did civilization arise from? Along the banks of major river systems Tigris & Euphrates Nile Indus Yellow/ Huang He

30 Map of Early civilizations

31 What evidence do we have for this theory?
Archaeological Evidence Tigris & Euphrates Rivers: Mesopotamia Sumerian & Babylonian Civilizations Indus Valley: Mohenjo Daro & Harrappa Huang He River: Shang Civilization, China Nile River: Egypt

32 Define the following important terms:
Prehistory Ice Ages Time preceding written (recorded) history Based on archaelogical finds Lasted until 12,000 years ago (Agriculture Revolution occurred around 10,000 years ago – approx BCE)

33 Hunter – Forger Societies during the early Stone Age (Paleolithic)
They lived in traditional economies. They provided for their own needs. Environmental resources were critical. ancestor veneration, shamans, gender division of labor . Hunter – Forger Societies during the early Stone Age (Paleolithic) Describe the life of early man (economically & socially).

34 Neolithic More Important Terms Paleolithic “New Stone Age”
Early Stone Age Ending 12,000 – years ago Known for hunting & gathering *didn’t produce food themselves, lived off the land (birds, nuts, fish, roots) grasslands, made baskets & pottery, weaving NO rich vs poor “New Stone Age” Recent Stone Age Beginning around BCE *Farming emerges - domestication of animals

35 Pastoral & Herding Societies/ agriculture
Key terminology 

36 Pastorialism Act of domesticating animals but not plants
Developed herding societies Common in grassland regions Particularly in Afro-Eurasia Pastorialists lived nomadic lifestyles and was hard on the environment overgrazing.

37 Agriculture Farming Allowed for permanent settlements
Featured domestication of plants: Potatoes Corn Squash *Agriculture provided a dependable food supply *Established a sedentary lifestyle *Agriculturalists gathered into villages *Private Property: who will farm which land

38 Domestication of animals
1st tamed was the dog: companionship, security, and help with hunting. (man’s best friend) Next: game, goats, sheep, & pigs Eventually: horses, oxen, camels, llamas

39 Social classes: “haves vs. have nots” different status of people
Social Stratification

40 Independent Innovation
Conclusions drawn without outside influence/ collaboration ex. Wheel, sail, pyramids Independent Innovation

41 When different ideas, products, are exchanged
When different ideas, products, are exchanged. “trade”- not just goods but ideas Cultural Diffusion


43 A modern-day example: Have a coke & a smile

44 Private Property Land not for public use
Lays the foundation for differing classes/ status

45 Social Classes Richer and poorer groups began to form with the emergence of agriculture: Who had the land to farm and who did NOT! Status, wealth, opportunity

46 Specialization of Labor
Resulted due to food surpluses New jobs New technologies arose

47 Patriarlchalism More dominant with agriculture than nomadic hunting/ gathering

48 Division of Labor Allowed for more efficient production levels
More sophistication of society Part of social classes - distinction

49 Urban Planning Farming allowed population to grow
Growth took villages to cities Sophistication/ planning due to complexities of population density

50 From Stone Ages to Metal: Transitions to Civilization….
Explain how agriculture changed the course of human history. *see next slide 

51 Impact of Agriculture Allowed for growth of cities & civilization
Unprecedented sophistication of opportunities due to a food surplus More food, More jobs, more technology Pottery Weaving The wheel The plow

52 From Stone Ages to Metal: Key Terms
Metallurgy Bronze Age Extracting metal from raw ore Metal Smithing: shaping metal into tools Began in the Middle East & China 3500 – 1200 BCE *between 5,500 – 3,200 years ago *Between the Neolithic and Iron Ages

53 Worship of many gods became common Ex. Metal idols

54 1st civilizations formed around 5,500 – 5,000 years ago
Civilizations had… Economic system Government Social System Belief System Intellectual Community Technology

55 Mesopotamia: 3500 – 2000 BCE the land between the rivers

56 Where did this civilization develop?
Between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers Aka “The Fertile Crescent” Fun Facts: Sumerian 1st and Babylonia arose from here

57 What made this a unique location?
Referred to as “the fertile crescent” Silt left by flooding Sumer’s The Epic of Gilgamesh Action novel Gods flood the earth Sumerians – downtrodden outlook on life They despise their gods

58 A list of major civilizations in Mesopotamia
Sumerians Babylonians (Hammurabi) Assyrians Hitties Sumerians had a written language – cuneiform – symbols to express concepts & objects; recorded in clay tablets

59 Mesopotamia: key terms
City states Empire Cuneiform Ziggarats Base 60 number system

60 Mesopotamia: key vocab
City state Empire A political unit that includes a town or a city and the surrounding land controlled by it. States that grew by military conquest

61 Mesopotamia: Key terms
cuneiform Written script of the Sumerians; Sumerian writing

62 Ziggurats definition picture A Sumerian temple made of sun-dried brick that was dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a particular city-state Terrace shaped temples dedicated to polytheistic gods

63 Used to measure time and navigational calculations
Base 60 number system Used to measure time and navigational calculations

64 Ancient Egypt What made this a unique location?
Where did this civilization develop? On the banks of the Nile What made this a unique location? Depended on the Nile for survival surrounded by desert *Nile flows South to North – only river in the world to do so Nile flooded the same time every year, very consistent and would leave black silt! FERTILE SOIL

65 Ancient Egypt: Key terminology
Pharoah Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom Hyksos Pyramids Hieroglyphics Papyrus

66 Pharoah Ruler of ancient Egypt Living incarnation of the Sun God

67 Egyptian history is broken up into kingdoms
Old  Middle  New

68 Basic social and political features established
Old Kingdom 2575 – BCE Basic social and political features established Egyptians began constructing pyramids to serve as tombs for their pharoahs during the Old Kingdom. The largest of the pyramids, the Great Pyramid of Khufu near Giza, was built during this time. The pyramids are evidence of the Egyptian belief in an afterlife and in the godly stature of their kings.

69 Significance of the Old Kingdom
With nearly 80 pyramids still standing along the west bank of the Nile, the pyramids of Egypt serve as a testament to the strength, material wealth, and ability to mobilize vast resources characteristic of ancient Egypt under the Pharoahs.

70 Middle Kingdom 2040 BCE – 1640 BCE

71 Hyksos: group who conquered Egypt during the 1600s BCE
As the Middle Kingdom in Egypt weakened, a people known as the Hyksos migrated into Egypt from the East. With superior military technology, such as the horse- drawn chariot and the compound bow, they were able to establish their power. They ruled Egypt for more than a century, extending the kingdom’s boundaries as far as Syria and Palestine, and maintaining peace and prosperity throughout their lands.

72 Significance of the Hyksos
The hyksos kings ushered in a new phase in ancient egyptian history. They introduced the horse drawn chariot, which pharoahs of the New Kingdom period would use to build strong armies & expand their territory. Significance of the Hyksos

73 New Kingdom: 1540 – 1075 BCE Around 1540 BCE, an Egyptian named Admose declared himself pharoah and drove the Hyksos from Egypt. This was the beginning of the New Kingdom, the period that would see Egypt rise to the peak of its power and glory. Fearful of invasion, future Egyptian pharoahs succeeded in establishing control over possible invasion routles. In the process, they overtook foreign lands and established an empire. Military conquests also expanded Egyptian trade and made the kingdom wealthy. The most famous New Kingdom pharoah is Ramses II (died c BCE), who left behind many monuments.

74 Significance of the New Kingdom
The New Kingdom period was the last great flourish of Egyptian power and culture before the empire’s long, slow decline.

75 Pyramids: gigantic tombs which served as resting places for the pharoahs
The Aztecs, Mayans and ancient Egyptians were 3 very different civilizations with one very large similarity: pyramids. However, of these 3 ancient cultures, the Egyptians set the standard for what most people recognize as classic pyramid design: massive monuments with a square base & four smooth-sided triangular sides, rising to a point. The Aztecs and Mayans built their pyramids with tiered steps and a flat top. Pyramids at Giza- Egypt

76 Hieroglyphics (1 of 2 slides)
Egyptian writtten characters

77 Hieroglyphics (2 of 2) The Egyptians invented their own form of writing called hieroglyphs, in which they used small pictures to represent each word. It was a very complex system that took a long time to learn and was only used by priests.

78 Papyrus: reeds used to make this type of paper
The Egyptians were also the first civilization to use papyrus as a writing surface. Papyrus was a plant material similar to thick paper, which is prone to curl and was adaptable for texts of any length *Recommended site:

79 South Asia: along the Indus River
The Indus River Valley South Asia: along the Indus River

80 Where did this civilization develop?
Indus River – what is now Pakistan & NW India

81 Indus Valley Civilization: 3000 – 1500 BCE
Around 3000 BCE, the Indus Valley civilization developed along the Indus river, in the NW of the Indian subcontinent. Ruins from the cities of Harrapa and Mohenjo Daro show that the Indus Valley civilization possessed strong governments and an economy based on agriculture. The Indus Valley civiilization also developed a written language.

82 Significance: The story of civilization in one of the world’s most historically rich regions, the Indian subcontinent, began with this first Indus Valley culture.

83 Indus Valley: Key Places
Mohenjo Daro Harappa Larger of the two Sat on the flood plain where the Indus empties into the Indian Ocean Another key area of settlement in the Indus Valley North of Mohenjo Daro

84 A prosperous urban civilization emerged along the Indus River by 2500 B.C.E., supporting several large cities, such as Harappa. Indus River peoples had trading contacts with Mesopotamia, but they developed a distinctive alphabet and artistic forms. Invasions by Indo-Europeans resulted in such complete destruction of this culture that little is known today about its subsequent influence on India. 

85 Early China Shang & Zhou Dynasties

86 Where did this civilization develop?
Along the Huang He or Yellow River in China

87 What made this a unique location?
Huang He & Yangzi Rivers important Gobi Desert to the west *Shang thought themselves to be the middle of the world

88 How does China’s dynasty system differ?
China’s history measured in dynasties or successors of emperors.

89 Ancient China: key terms
Ancestor veneration Feudalism Respecting one’s elders Divides, land, wealth, and influence


91 China: key terms Bureaucracy Mandate of heaven
Levels of government responsibilities/ structure/ services/ functions The idea that as long as a leader is governed wisely, he could claim the divine right to rule

92 China: other key points
1st: Pictographs: developed by the Shang, Chinese system of writing 2nd: Shang used chariots which they may have learned about from the Middle East; traded with the Indus Valley who traded with Mesopatamia

93 In review… Mesopotamian Egyptian Indus Valley Shang
What were the 4 early civilizations? What did they all have in common? Mesopotamian Egyptian Indus Valley Shang Rivers Trade Government Religion Language Technology Metal work Gender Roles

94 Coming to the Americas!

95 The Olmec/ Andean Cultures & the Chavin
Olmec: south, Central Mexico Andean – Andes Mts. In South America

96 Where did these civilizations differ from the 4 early Eurasian civilizations?
Bering Strait Theory – continued migration over 1000s of years Rose without the benefit of a large river system nearby

97 Key terms Quipo: Textiles System of record keeping
Using knots tied into string Used in the Andes Added meaning via different color comibinations Textiles Clothing/ fabric *NOTE: Chavins had elaborate textiles

98 Other cultures & civilizations
Odds and ends

99 Hebrews People of Israel Founded the 1st monotheistic faith
Abraham entered into a covenant as the chosen people of Jehovah  Judaism resulted

100 Monotheistic Belief in one God
As opposed to polytheism – belief in more than one (many) gods Judaism, Christianity, & Islam are all monotheistic

101 Phoenicians Maritime culture who traded and colonized widely through the Mediterranean Based in Syria & Lebanon Chief legacy was their alphabet: written script in which each sign represents a sound rather than a concept or object and was adopted by the Hebrews, Greeks, Romans

102 Alphabet Building blocks of a written language, representing sounds, not concepts, allowed the formation of any word from a small set of easily memorized symbols

103 Making Connections: Random Thoughts so far…
All people have a language, early on spoken but not written. With the sophistication of civilizations, written languages emerge. All cities have urban planning – cities, streets/road, religious monuments, “monumental architecture” – left its mark on the landscape

104 Monarch Key Terms… As compared to a dictator
Hereditary rule by a single person Premodern times: rule by divine will, or embodies a deity

105 Nobility Land-owing class Often associated with a monarch

106 aristocracy “elite” Government of a privileged class

107 oligarchy “government of a few” Not a monarch Not a democracy

108 Theocracy Government dominated by a religious elite

109 hierarchy A culture’s way of ranking social classes Privilege Respect

110 Caste systems Especially strict hierarchies where movement is all but impossible

111 Debt slavery Hereditary ownership of one human by another

112 Indentured slavery Working for a set number of years to pay off a debt

113 serfdom Similar to slavery
Compelled peasants to labor for the owners of the land they lived on

114 Prison Labor Hard labor for punishment / payback to society

115 More terms: early history
Almost done….

116 pictograph Monumental architecture
Large man-made structures that often pass the test of time Often of religious and or political nature Chinese alphabet

117 Shamanism Brahmins People who communicated with the spirits
Priestly class at the top of the caste system in India

118 Torah Tanakh Jewish sacred teachings Hebrew scripture

119 Avesta Zoroastrianism Another monotheistic religion
Found by Zoraster, probably from Eastern Iran Zorastrian scripture

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