2 First things first: Beginnings in History Supplementing your HW packetFirst things first: Beginnings in HistoryAssessment Weight on the AP Exam = 5%
3 Works Cited for “The Big Picture” Strayer, Robert W. Ways of the World: A Global History with Sources. 2nd Edition. Boston, MA: Beford/ St. Martins, Print.
4 “The Big Picture” Features “must-know events” in AP World History Summarizes key content
5 Focusing in on the beginning… Humans have long been storytellers. Our stories – myths, legends, “fairy tales,” have sought to distill meaning from experience while providing guidance for the living.Much the same can be said of modern historians, although they must operate within accepted rules of evidence.But all tellers of stories – ancient and modern alike – have to decide at what point to begin their accounts and what major turning points in those narratives to highlight.
6 Time Out! What is your story? YOU! Let’s hear YOUR story!Humanity: What to include?What is your story?Where would you begin? With you? Your family?What would you include – your turning points?For world historians seeking to tell the story of humankind as a whole, four major “beginnings,” each of them an extended historical process, have charted the initial stages of the human journey.
7 The human story begins… 4 stages The Emergence of HumankindThe Globalization of HumankindThe Revolution of Farming and HerdingThe Turning Point of Civilization
8 The Emergence of Humankind According to archaeologists & anthropologists, the evolutionary line of descent leading to Homo sapiens, diverged from that leading to chimpanzees, our closest primate relatives, some 5 million to 6 million years ago, and it happened in eastern and southern Africa.There, perhaps 20 or 30 different species emerged, all of them members of the Homininae (or hominid) family of human-like creatures.What they all shared in common was bipedalism, the ability to walk upright on two legs.
9 The Emergence of Humankind In 1976, the archaeologist Mary Leakey uncovered in what is now Tanzania a series of footprints of three such hominid individuals, preserved in cooling volcanic ash about 3.5 million years ago. Two of them walked side by side, perhaps holding hands.om/people/mary- leakey
10 The Emergence of Humankind Over time, these hominid species changed.Their brains grew larger, as evidenced by the size of their skulls.About 2.3 million years ago, a hominid creature known as Homo habilis began to make and use simple stone tools.Others started to eat meat, at least occasionally.Homo erectus, began to migrate out of Africa, and their remains have been found in various parts of Eurasia. This species is also associated with the first controlled use of fire.
11 Eventually, all of these earlier hominid species died out, except one Homo sapiens, ourselves!
12 Emergence of Humankind Although under constant debate, it is widely believed that we, too, first emerged in Africa and quite recently, probably no more than 250,000 years ago.For a long time, all of the small number of Homo sapiens, lived in Africa but sometime after 100,000 years ago, they too began to migrate out of Africa onto the Eurasian landmass, then to Australia, and into the Western Hemisphere and the Pacific Islands.The great experiment of human history had begun!
14 Globalization of Humankind Today, every significant landmass on earth is occupied by human beings, but it was NOT always the case.A mere half million years ago, our species did NOT even exist.Only 100,000 years ago that species was limited to Africa and numbered, some scholars believe, fewer than 10,000 individuals.These ancient ancestors of ours, rather small in stature and not fast on foot, were armed with a very limited technology of stone tools with which to confront the many dangers of the world.
15 Then in perhaps the most amazing tale in all of human history… They moved from this very modest and geographically limited role in the scheme of things to a worldwide and increasingly dominant presence.What kinds of societies, technologies, and understandings of the world accompanied, and perhaps, facilitated, this globalization of humankind?
16 The Globalization of Humankind The phase of human history during which these initial migrations took place is known as the Paleolithic era.PaleolithicLiterally means “old stone age”Refers generally to a food collecting or gathering and hunting way of lifeBefore agriculture allowed people to grow food or raise animals deliberatelyLasted until about 11,000 years ago
17 Paleolithic EraRepresents over 95% of the time human beings have inhabited the earthHowever, it accounts for only about 12% of the total number of people who have lived on the planet.During this time, Homo sapiens colonized the world, making themselves at home in every environmental niche, from the frigid Arctic to the rain forests of Central Africa and Brazil, in mountains, deserts, and plains.
18 The Revolution of Farming & Herding In 2012, almost all of the world’s 7 billion people lived from the food grown on farms and gardens and from domesticated animals raised for their meat, milk, or eggs.BUT before 11,000 years ago, NO ONE survived in this way.Then repeatedly and fairly rapidly, at least in world history terms, human communities in parts of the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and the Americas began the laborious process of domesticating animals and selecting seeds to be planted.
19 A momentous accomplishment: a first in human history The Agricultural Revolution
20 Agricultural Revolution Marks the single most significant & enduring transformation in human historyAlthough much shorter than the Paleolithic era that preceded it, farming and raising animals allowed for a substantial increase in human numbers.
21 Agriculture Revolution: Factors to consider Agriculture would vary according to the environment:ClimateSoilVarious wild plants and animals
22 Gardens and Farms Root crops – potatoes in the Andes Tree crops – banansWild grains – rice, wheat or corn
23 What if you couldn’t farm? In more arid areas where farming was difficult, some people, known as pastoralists, came to depend on herds of domesticated animals.Because they moved frequently & in regular patterns to search for pasturelands, they are often called nomads.
24 Point of Interest: In the Americas… Regarding animal husbandry, the Americas were at a distant disadvantage, for there were few large animals that could be tamed.NO goatsNO sheepNO pigsNO horsesNO camelsNo cattle
25 Another point of interest: Afroeurasia Big Idea: Conflict is inherent in the nature of humans.In the Afro-Eurasian world, conflicts between settled agricultural peoples and more mobile pastoral peoples represented an enduring pattern of interaction across the region.
26 The Turning Point of Civilization Remember the 4 key stages in early human development??1st: The emergence of humankind2nd: The globalization of humankind3rd: The Revolution of Farming & Herding4th: The Turning Point of Civilization
27 The Turning Point of Civilization The most prominent and powerful human communities to emerge out of the Agricultural Revolution were those often designated as “civilizations”.What’s a civilization?More complex societies that were based in bustling cities and governed by formal states (governments.)Not until several thousand years AFTER the beginning of agriculture did the first cities and states emerge, around B.C.E.*that’s about 5,000 – 6,000 years ago!!!!!Along key riversTigris & Euphrates, Nile, Indus, Huang He
31 What evidence do we have for this theory? Archaeological EvidenceTigris & Euphrates Rivers: MesopotamiaSumerian & Babylonian CivilizationsIndus Valley: Mohenjo Daro & HarrappaHuang He River: Shang Civilization, ChinaNile River: Egypt
32 Define the following important terms: PrehistoryIce AgesTime preceding written (recorded) historyBased on archaelogical findsLasted until 12,000 years ago(Agriculture Revolution occurred around 10,000 years ago – approx BCE)
33 Hunter – Forger Societies during the early Stone Age (Paleolithic) They lived in traditional economies.They provided for their own needs.Environmental resources were critical.ancestor veneration,shamans,gender division of labor.Hunter – Forger Societies during the early Stone Age (Paleolithic)Describe the life of early man (economically & socially).
34 Neolithic More Important Terms Paleolithic “New Stone Age” Early Stone AgeEnding 12,000 – years agoKnown for hunting & gathering*didn’t produce food themselves, lived off the land (birds, nuts, fish, roots) grasslands, made baskets & pottery, weavingNO rich vs poor“New Stone Age”Recent Stone AgeBeginning around BCE*Farming emerges - domestication of animals
36 Pastorialism Act of domesticating animals but not plants Developed herding societiesCommon in grassland regionsParticularly in Afro-EurasiaPastorialists lived nomadic lifestyles and was hard on the environment overgrazing.
37 Agriculture Farming Allowed for permanent settlements Featured domestication of plants:PotatoesCornSquash*Agriculture provided a dependable food supply*Established a sedentary lifestyle*Agriculturalists gathered into villages*Private Property: who will farm which land
38 Domestication of animals 1st tamed was the dog: companionship, security, and help with hunting. (man’s best friend)Next: game, goats, sheep, & pigsEventually: horses, oxen, camels, llamas
39 Social classes: “haves vs. have nots” different status of people Social Stratification
44 Private Property Land not for public use Lays the foundation for differing classes/ status
45 Social ClassesRicher and poorer groups began to form with the emergence of agriculture:Who had the land to farm and who did NOT!Status, wealth, opportunity
46 Specialization of Labor Resulted due to food surplusesNew jobsNew technologies arose
47 PatriarlchalismMore dominant with agriculture than nomadic hunting/ gathering
48 Division of Labor Allowed for more efficient production levels More sophistication of societyPart of social classes - distinction
49 Urban Planning Farming allowed population to grow Growth took villages to citiesSophistication/ planning due to complexities of population density
50 From Stone Ages to Metal: Transitions to Civilization…. Explain how agriculture changed the course of human history.*see next slide
51 Impact of Agriculture Allowed for growth of cities & civilization Unprecedented sophistication of opportunities due to a food surplusMore food, More jobs, more technologyPotteryWeavingThe wheelThe plow
52 From Stone Ages to Metal: Key Terms MetallurgyBronze AgeExtracting metal from raw oreMetal Smithing: shaping metal into toolsBegan in the Middle East & China3500 – 1200 BCE*between 5,500 – 3,200 years ago*Between the Neolithic and Iron Ages
53 Worship of many gods became common Ex. Metal idols Polytheism
54 1st civilizations formed around 5,500 – 5,000 years ago Civilizations had…Economic systemGovernmentSocial SystemBelief SystemIntellectual CommunityTechnology
55 Mesopotamia: 3500 – 2000 BCE the land between the rivers
56 Where did this civilization develop? Between the Tigris & Euphrates RiversAka “The Fertile Crescent”Fun Facts: Sumerian 1st and Babylonia arose from here
57 What made this a unique location? Referred to as “the fertile crescent”Silt left by floodingSumer’s The Epic of GilgameshAction novelGods flood the earthSumerians – downtrodden outlook on lifeThey despise their gods
58 A list of major civilizations in Mesopotamia SumeriansBabylonians (Hammurabi)AssyriansHittiesSumerians had a written language – cuneiform – symbols to express concepts & objects; recorded in clay tablets
59 Mesopotamia: key terms City statesEmpireCuneiformZiggaratsBase 60 number system
60 Mesopotamia: key vocab City stateEmpireA political unit that includes a town or a city and the surrounding land controlled by it.States that grew by military conquest
61 Mesopotamia: Key terms cuneiformWritten script of the Sumerians; Sumerian writing
62 ZigguratsdefinitionpictureA Sumerian temple made of sun-dried brick that was dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a particular city-stateTerrace shaped temples dedicated to polytheistic gods
63 Used to measure time and navigational calculations Base 60 number systemUsed to measure time and navigational calculations
64 Ancient Egypt What made this a unique location? Where did this civilization develop?On the banks of the NileWhat made this a unique location?Depended on the Nile for survivalsurrounded by desert*Nile flows South to North – only river in the world to do soNile flooded the same time every year, very consistent and would leave black silt! FERTILE SOIL
65 Ancient Egypt: Key terminology PharoahOld KingdomMiddle KingdomNew KingdomHyksosPyramidsHieroglyphicsPapyrus
66 PharoahRuler of ancient EgyptLiving incarnation of the Sun God
67 Egyptian history is broken up into kingdoms Old Middle New
68 Basic social and political features established Old Kingdom2575 – BCEBasic social and political features establishedEgyptians began constructing pyramids to serve as tombs for their pharoahs during the Old Kingdom.The largest of the pyramids, the Great Pyramid of Khufu near Giza, was built during this time.The pyramids are evidence of the Egyptian belief in an afterlife and in the godly stature of their kings.
69 Significance of the Old Kingdom With nearly 80 pyramids still standing along the west bank of the Nile, the pyramids of Egypt serve as a testament to the strength, material wealth, and ability to mobilize vast resources characteristic of ancient Egypt under the Pharoahs.
71 Hyksos: group who conquered Egypt during the 1600s BCE As the Middle Kingdom in Egypt weakened, a people known as the Hyksos migrated into Egypt from the East.With superior military technology, such as the horse- drawn chariot and the compound bow, they were able to establish their power.They ruled Egypt for more than a century, extending the kingdom’s boundaries as far as Syria and Palestine, and maintaining peace and prosperity throughout their lands.
72 Significance of the Hyksos The hyksos kings ushered in a new phase in ancient egyptian history. They introduced the horse drawn chariot, which pharoahs of the New Kingdom period would use to build strong armies & expand their territory.Significance of the Hyksos
73 New Kingdom: 1540 – 1075 BCEAround 1540 BCE, an Egyptian named Admose declared himself pharoah and drove the Hyksos from Egypt. This was the beginning of the New Kingdom, the period that would see Egypt rise to the peak of its power and glory.Fearful of invasion, future Egyptian pharoahs succeeded in establishing control over possible invasion routles. In the process, they overtook foreign lands and established an empire.Military conquests also expanded Egyptian trade and made the kingdom wealthy.The most famous New Kingdom pharoah is Ramses II (died c BCE), who left behind many monuments.
74 Significance of the New Kingdom The New Kingdom period was the last great flourish of Egyptian power and culture before the empire’s long, slow decline.
75 Pyramids: gigantic tombs which served as resting places for the pharoahs The Aztecs, Mayans and ancient Egyptians were 3 very different civilizations with one very large similarity: pyramids. However, of these 3 ancient cultures, the Egyptians set the standard for what most people recognize as classic pyramid design: massive monuments with a square base & four smooth-sided triangular sides, rising to a point. The Aztecs and Mayans built their pyramids with tiered steps and a flat top.Pyramids at Giza- Egypt
76 Hieroglyphics (1 of 2 slides) Egyptian writtten characters
77 Hieroglyphics (2 of 2)The Egyptians invented their own form of writing called hieroglyphs, in which they used small pictures to represent each word. It was a very complex system that took a long time to learn and was only used by priests.
78 Papyrus: reeds used to make this type of paper The Egyptians were also the first civilization to use papyrus as a writing surface. Papyrus was a plant material similar to thick paper, which is prone to curl and was adaptable for texts of any length*Recommended site:.weebly.com/egyptian-writing.html
79 South Asia: along the Indus River The Indus River ValleySouth Asia: along the Indus River
80 Where did this civilization develop? Indus River – what is now Pakistan & NW India
81 Indus Valley Civilization: 3000 – 1500 BCE Around 3000 BCE, the Indus Valley civilization developed along the Indus river, in the NW of the Indian subcontinent.Ruins from the cities of Harrapa and Mohenjo Daro show that the Indus Valley civilization possessed strong governments and an economy based on agriculture.The Indus Valley civiilization also developed a written language.
82 Significance:The story of civilization in one of the world’s most historically rich regions, the Indian subcontinent, began with this first Indus Valley culture.
83 Indus Valley: Key Places Mohenjo DaroHarappaLarger of the twoSat on the flood plain where the Indus empties into the Indian OceanAnother key area of settlement in the Indus ValleyNorth of Mohenjo Daro
84 A prosperous urban civilization emerged along the Indus River by 2500 B.C.E., supporting several large cities, such as Harappa. Indus River peoples had trading contacts with Mesopotamia, but they developed a distinctive alphabet and artistic forms. Invasions by Indo-Europeans resulted in such complete destruction of this culture that little is known today about its subsequent influence on India.
91 China: key terms Bureaucracy Mandate of heaven Levels of government responsibilities/ structure/ services/ functionsThe idea that as long as a leader is governed wisely, he could claim the divine right to rule
92 China: other key points 1st: Pictographs: developed by the Shang, Chinese system of writing2nd: Shang used chariots which they may have learned about from the Middle East; traded with the Indus Valley who traded with Mesopatamia
93 In review… Mesopotamian Egyptian Indus Valley Shang What were the 4 early civilizations?What did they all have in common?MesopotamianEgyptianIndus ValleyShangRiversTradeGovernmentReligionLanguageTechnologyMetal workGender Roles
95 The Olmec/ Andean Cultures & the Chavin Olmec: south, Central MexicoAndean – Andes Mts. In South America
96 Where did these civilizations differ from the 4 early Eurasian civilizations? Bering Strait Theory – continued migration over 1000s of yearsRose without the benefit of a large river system nearby
97 Key terms Quipo: Textiles System of record keeping Using knots tied into stringUsed in the AndesAdded meaning via different color comibinationsTextilesClothing/ fabric*NOTE: Chavins had elaborate textiles
99 Hebrews People of Israel Founded the 1st monotheistic faith Abraham entered into a covenant as the chosen people of Jehovah Judaism resulted
100 Monotheistic Belief in one God As opposed to polytheism – belief in more than one (many) godsJudaism, Christianity, & Islam are all monotheistic
101 PhoeniciansMaritime culture who traded and colonized widely through the MediterraneanBased in Syria & LebanonChief legacy was their alphabet: written script in which each sign represents a sound rather than a concept or object and was adopted by the Hebrews, Greeks, Romans
102 AlphabetBuilding blocks of a written language, representing sounds, not concepts, allowed the formation of any word from a small set of easily memorized symbols
103 Making Connections: Random Thoughts so far… All people have a language, early on spoken but not written.With the sophistication of civilizations, written languages emerge.All cities have urban planning – cities, streets/road, religious monuments, “monumental architecture” – left its mark on the landscape
104 Monarch Key Terms… As compared to a dictator Hereditary rule by a single personPremodern times: rule by divine will, or embodies a deity
105 NobilityLand-owing classOften associated with a monarch
106 aristocracy“elite”Government of a privileged class
107 oligarchy“government of a few”Not a monarchNot a democracy
108 TheocracyGovernment dominated by a religious elite
109 hierarchy A culture’s way of ranking social classes Privilege Respect wealth
110 Caste systemsEspecially strict hierarchies where movement is all but impossible
111 Debt slaveryHereditary ownership of one human by another
112 Indentured slaveryWorking for a set number of years to pay off a debt
113 serfdom Similar to slavery Compelled peasants to labor for the owners of the land they lived on
114 Prison LaborHard labor for punishment / payback to society