2 Management: Arab World Edition Robbins, Coulter, Sidani, Jamali Chapter 5: Social Responsibility and Managerial EthicsLecturer: AMANI B AL-KAHTANI
3 Learning Outcomes Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. 5.1 What Is Social Responsibility?Differentiate between social obligation, social responsiveness and social responsibility.Discuss whether organizations should be socially involved.Describe what conclusion can be reached regarding social involvement and economic performance.5.2 Green ManagementDefine green management.Describe how organizations can go green.Explain how green management can be evaluated.
4 Learning Outcomes 5.3 Managers And Ethical Behavior Define ethics. Discuss the factors that influence whether a person behaves ethically or unethically.Describe what managers need to know about international ethics.5.4 Encouraging Ethical BehaviorDescribe managers’ important role in encouraging ethical behavior.Discuss specific ways managers can encourage ethical behavior.
5 Learning Outcomes 5.6 Ethics And CSR In The Arab Region 5.5 Social Responsibility And Ethics Issues In Today’s WorldDiscuss how managers can manage ethical lapses and social irresponsibility.Explain the role of social entrepreneurs.Discuss how businesses can promote positive social change.5.6 Ethics And CSR In The Arab RegionExplore business ethics in the Arab world.Explain the concept of Wasta in the Arab region.Describe CSR in the Arab region and its main drivers.
6 What Is Social Responsibility? 1. Differentiate between social obligation, social responsiveness and social responsibility.2. Discuss whether organizations should be socially involved.3. Describe what conclusion can be reached regarding social involvement and economic performance.
7 What Is Social Responsibility? Managers regularly face decisions that have a dimension of social responsibility, such as those involving employee relations, philanthropy, pricing, resource conservation, product quality and safety, and doing business in countries that devalue human rights.
8 What Is Social Responsibility? (cont’d) Classical View ofSocial responsibilitySocial ObligationSocioeconomic View ofSocial responsibilitySocial ResponsibilitySocial Responsiveness
9 From Obligation to Responsiveness to Responsibility Social ObligationWhen a firm engages in social actions because of its obligation to meet certain economic and legal responsibilities.Social ResponsivenessWhen a firm engages in social actions in response to some popular social need.Social ResponsibilityA business’s intention, beyond its legal and economic obligations, to do the right things and act in ways that are good for society.
10 What Is Social Responsibility? The Classical ViewManagement’s only social responsibility is to maximize profits (create a financial return) by operating the business in the best interests of the stockholders (owners of the corporation).Expending the firm’s resources on doing “social good” unjustifiably increases costs that lower profits to the owners and raises prices to consumers.
11 What Is Social Responsibility? (cont’d) The Socioeconomic ViewManagement’s social responsibility goes beyond making profits to include protecting and improving society’s welfare.Corporations are not independent entities responsible only to stockholders.Firms have a moral responsibility to larger society to become involved in social, legal, and political issues.“To do the right thing.”
12 Exhibit 5–1 Social Responsibility Versus Social Responsiveness Social Responsibility Social ResponsivenessMajor consideration Ethical PragmaticFocus Ends MeansEmphasis Obligation ResponsesDecision framework Long term Medium and short termSource: Adapted from S.L. Wartick and P.L. Cochran, “The Evolution of the Corporate Social Performance Model,” Academy of Management Review, October 1985, p. 766.
13 Exhibit 5–2 Arguments For and Against Social Responsibility Public expectationsLong-run profitsEthical obligationPublic imageBetter environmentDiscouragement of further governmental regulationBalance of responsibility and powerStockholder interestsPossession of resourcesSuperiority of prevention over curesAgainstViolation of profit maximizationDilution of purposeCostsToo much powerLack of skillsLack of accountability
14 Does Social Responsibility Pay? Studies appear to show a positive relationship between social involvement and the economic performance of firms.Difficulties in defining and measuring “social responsibility” and “economic performance” raise issues of validity and causation in the studies.Mutual funds using social screening in investment decisions slightly outperformed other mutual funds.A general conclusion is that a firm’s social actions do not harm its long-term performance.
15 Green Management Define green management. Describe how organizations can go green.Explain how green management can be evaluated.
16 The Greening of Management The recognition of the close link between an organization’s decision and activities and its impact on the natural environment.Global environmental problems facing managers:Air, water, and soil pollution from toxic wastesGlobal warming from greenhouse gas emissionsNatural resource depletion
17 How Organizations Go Green Legal (or Light Green) ApproachFirms simply do what is legally required by obeying laws, rules, and regulations willingly and without legal challenge.Market ApproachFirms respond to the preferences of their customers for environmentally friendly products.
18 How Organizations Go Green (cont’d) Stakeholder ApproachFirms work to meet the environmental demands of multiple stakeholders ‒ employees, suppliers, and the community.Activist ApproachFirms look for ways to respect and preserve the environment and be actively socially responsible.
19 Exhibit 5–3 Green Approaches Source: Based on R.E. Freeman. J. Pierce, and R. Dodd. Shades of Green: Business Ethics and the Environment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
20 Evaluating the Greening of Management Organizations become “greener” byUsing the Sustainability Reporting Guidelines to document “green” actions.Adopting ISO standards for environmental management.Being named as one of the 100 Most Sustainable Corporations in the World.
21 Managers And Ethical Behavior 1. Define ethics.2. Discuss the factors that influence whether a person behaves ethically or unethically.3. Describe what managers need to know about international ethics.
22 Managerial Ethics Ethics Defined Principles, values, and beliefs that define what is right and wrong behavior.
23 Exhibit 5–4. Green Factors That Determine Exhibit 5–4 Green Factors That Determine Ethical and Unethical Behavior
24 Factors That Affect Employee Ethics Moral DevelopmentA measure of independence from outside influencesLevels of Individual Moral DevelopmentPreconventional levelConventional levelPrincipled levelStage of moral development interacts with:Individual characteristicsThe organization’s structural designThe organization’s cultureThe intensity of the ethical issue
25 Exhibit 5–5 Stages of Moral Development Source: Based on L. Kohlberg, “Moral Stages and Moralization: The Cognitive-Development Approach,” in T. Lickona (ed.). Moral Development and Behavior: Theory, Research, and Social Issues (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1976), pp. 34–35.
26 Factors That Affect Employee Ethics Moral DevelopmentResearch Conclusions:People proceed through the stages of moral development sequentially.There is no guarantee of continued moral development.Most adults are in Stage 4 (“good corporate citizen”).
27 Factors That Affect Employee Ethics (cont’d) Individual CharacteristicsValuesBasic convictions about what is right or wrong.PersonalityEgo strength ‒ A personality measure of the strength of a person’s convictions.Locus of ControlA personality attribute that measures the degree to which people believe they control their own life.Internal locus: the belief that you control your destiny.External locus: the belief that what happens to you is due to luck or chance.
28 Factors That Affect Employee Ethics (cont’d) Structural VariablesOrganizational characteristics and mechanisms that guide and influence individual ethics:Performance appraisal systemsReward allocation systemsBehaviors (ethical) of managers
29 Factors That Affect Employee Ethics (cont’d) Organization’s CultureValues-Based ManagementAn approach to managing in which managers establish and uphold an organization’s shared values.The Purposes of Shared ValuesGuiding managerial decisionsShaping employee behaviorInfluencing the direction of marketing effortsBuilding team spirit
30 Factors That Affect Employee Ethics (cont’d) Organization’s Culture (cont’d)The Bottom Line on Shared Corporate ValuesAn organization’s values are reflected in the decisions and actions of its employees.Intensity of the Ethical Issue
32 Ethics in an International Context Ethical standards are not universalSocial and cultural differences determine acceptable behaviors.Implications for international managersIt is important for individual managers working in foreign cultures to recognize the social, cultural, and political/legal influences on what is appropriate and acceptable behavior.Implications for international companiesInternational businesses must clarify their ethical guidelines so that employees know what is expected of them while working in a foreign location.
33 The Global CompactAnother guide to being ethical in international businessDocument created by the United Nations outlining principles for doing business globally in the areas of human rights, labor, and the environment and anti-corruption.“More than 3,000 CEOs have signed the Compact, making it the world’s largest voluntary corporate citizenship initiative.”
34 Exhibit 5–7 Issue Ten Principles of the United Nations Human RightsPrinciple 1: Support and respect the protection of international human rights within their sphere of influence.Principle 2: Make sure business corporations are not complicit in human rights abuses.Labor StandardsPrinciple 3: Freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining.Principle 4: The elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labor.Principle 5: The effective abolition of child labor.Principle 6: The elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.EnvironmentPrinciple 7: Support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges.Principle 8: Undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility.Principle 9: Encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies.Principle 10: Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms, including extortion and bribery.
35 Exhibit 5–8 Business Participants in the Global Compact by Region and Size Source: “Participants and Stakeholders – Business Associations”, United Nations Global Compact,
36 Encouraging Ethical Behavior 1. Describe managers’ important role in encouraging ethical behavior.2. Discuss specific ways managers can encourage ethical behavior.
37 How Managers Can Improve Ethical Behavior in An Organization 1. Hire individuals with high ethical standards. 2. Establish codes of ethics and decision rules. 3. Lead by example. 4. Set realistic job goals and include ethics in performance appraisals. 5. Provide ethics training. 6. Conduct independent social audits. 7. Provide support for individuals facing ethical dilemmas.
38 Codes of EthicsIs a formal statement of an organization’s values and the ethical rules it expects employees to follow.What should it include?It should be specific enough to show employees the spirit in which they are supposed to do things yet loose enough to allow for freedom of judgment.Unfortunately, the mere presence of a code of ethics does not guarantee that people will follow it.
39 Exhibit 5–9 Codes of Ethics Cluster 1. Be a Dependable Organizational Citizen 1. Comply with safety, health, and security regulations. 2. Demonstrate courtesy, respect, honesty, and fairness. 3. Illegal drugs and alcohol at work are prohibited. 4. Manage personal finances well. 5. Exhibit good attendance and punctuality. 6. Follow directives of supervisors. 7. Do not use abusive language. 8. Dress in business attire. 9. Firearms at work are prohibited.
40 Exhibit 5–9 Codes of Ethics (cont’d) Cluster 2. Do Not Do Anything Unlawful or Improper That Will Harm the Organization 1. Conduct business in compliance with all laws. 2. Payments for unlawful purposes are prohibited. 3. Bribes are prohibited. 4. Avoid outside activities that impair duties. 5. Maintain confidentiality of records. 6. Comply with all antitrust and trade regulations. 7. Comply with all accounting rules and controls. 8. Do not use company property for personal benefit.
41 Exhibit 5–9 Codes of Ethics (cont’d) Cluster 2. Do Not Do Anything Unlawful or Improper That Will Harm the Organization (cont’d) 9. Employees are personally accountable for company funds. 10. Do not propagate false or misleading information. 11. Make decisions without regard for personal gain. Cluster 3. Be Good to Customers 1. Convey true claims in product advertisements. 2. Perform assigned duties to the best of your ability. 3. Provide products and services of the highest quality.
42 Effective Use of a Code of Ethics 1. Model appropriate behavior and reward those who act ethically. 2. Communicate the code regularly to all employees. 3. Managers should continually reaffirm the importance of the ethics code and consistently discipline those who break it. 4. The organization’s stakeholders (employees, customers, and so forth) should be considered when an ethics code is developed or improved. 5. Use the 12 questions approach (next slide).
43 Exhibit 5–10 Twelve Questions Approach 1. Have you defined the problem accurately? 2. How would you define the problem if you stood on the other side of the fence? 3. How did this situation occur in the first place? 4. To whom and to what do you give your loyalty as a person and as a member of the corporation? 5. What is your intention in making this decision? 6. How does this intention compare with the probable results? 7. Whom could your decision or action injure? 8. Can you discuss the problem with the affected parties before you make the decision?
44 Exhibit 5–10 Twelve Questions Approach (cont’d) 9. Are you confident that your position will be as valid over a long period of time as it seems now? 10. Could you disclose without qualm your decision or action to your boss, your chief executive officer, the board of directors, your family, society as a whole? 11. What is the symbolic potential of your action if understood? If misunderstood? 12. Under what conditions would you allow exceptions to your stand?
45 The Value of Ethics Training Can make a difference in ethical behaviors.Increases employee awareness of ethical issues in business decisions.Clarifies and reinforces the organization’s standards of conduct.Helps employees become more confident that they will have the organization’s support when taking unpopular but ethically correct stances.
46 Exhibit 5–11 Being an Ethical Leader Be a good role model by being ethical and honest.Tell the truth always.Don’t hide or manipulate information.Be willing to admit your failures.Share your personal values by regularly communicating them to employees.Stress the organization’s or team’s important shared values.Use the reward system to hold everyone accountable to the values.
47 Social Responsibility And Ethics Issues In Today’s World 1. Discuss how managers can manage ethical lapses and social irresponsibility.2. Explain the role of social entrepreneurs.3. Discuss how businesses can promote positive social change.
48 Managing Ethical Lapses and Social Irresponsibility Provide ethical leadershipProtect employees who raise ethical issues (whistle-blowers)
49 Awareness of Social Issues Social EntrepreneursAre individuals or organizations who seek out opportunities to improve society by using practical, innovative, and sustainable approaches.Want to make the world a better place and have a driving passion to make that happen.
50 Businesses Promoting Positive Social Change Corporate PhilanthropyCampaignsDonationsFunding own foundationsEmployee Volunteering EffortsTeam volunteeringIndividual volunteering during work hours
51 Ethics And CSR In The Arab Region 1. Explore business ethics in the Arab world.2. Explain the concept of Wasta in the Arab region.3. Describe CSR in the Arab region and its main drivers.
52 Ethics And CSR In The Arab Region The Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) table shows a country's ranking and score. The closer it gets to 10.0, the more transparent it is.Indicators for countries in the MENA region demonstrate that there is a problem of ethics or an ethics crisis in the region.
53 Exhibit 5–12 The Corruption Perceptions Index – Scores for Selected Countries in the Region
54 Problem of ethics?Indicators for countries in the MENA region demonstrate that there is a problem of ethics. Such low scores could be attributed to several factors. Such as:Red-tape (rigid commitment to redundant rules)Stringent bureaucracyMismanagement and wasteInefficienciesNepotism (favoritism given to friends and family irrespective of merit)Ineffective due process (weak laws or weak implementation of laws)
55 Wasta Means “intermediary” It is a feature in Arab environments that has lots of implications for managerial practice.Wasta, as a social process, has played a significant role in many Arab societies.Wasta sometimes could give the benefiting person a head start over others.
56 CSR In The Arab World CSR in Arab Countries Many managers link CSR to their religious upbringing as both Islam and Christianity have deemed it necessary for people to help each other.Zakat (the religious requirement to give a portion of one’s wealth to the poor and needy) is often linked to CSR.But religious charity has a private religious meaning whereas CSR reflects corporate initiatives which go beyond personal drivers.
57 CSR In The Arab World (cont’d) CSR in Arab CountriesA study about businesses involved in CSR activities in Dubai found that CSR enhanced financial performance, employee commitment, and corporate reputation.Many examples of CSE are present in Arab countries.CSR is mainly represented through philanthropy and charity, and lacks formalization and institutionalization.CSR in the region seems to be driven more by rational and political choices rather than responding to societal expectations.
58 Drivers of CSR in the Region 1. A desire to develop the investment climate (Turkey, Morocco, Egypt)2. Intensity of rivalry and a desire for better efficiency and productivity (Jordan, Turkey, Egypt)3. A desire to emulate models by the international business environment (all countries)4. International codes of conducts (Morocco, Turkey)5. Governmental regulations (Turkey, Morocco, Palestine, Jordan)6. Activism of civil society groups such as Transparency International and Greenpeace directly or through local chapters (Turkey, Lebanon)7. Awards and prizes (Morocco, Turkey)Source; M. Ararat, “Corporate Social Responsibility across Middle East and North Africa,” April 1, 2006). Available at SSRN:
59 Terms to Knowclassical view socioeconomic view social obligation social responsiveness social responsibility social screening greening of management values-based managementethicsvaluesego strengthlocus of controlcode of ethicswhistle-blowersocial entrepreneur