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Strategy in the Global EnvironmentChapter Eight Strategy in the Global Environment
The Global and National EnvironmentsInternational expansion represents a way of earning greater returns by transferring the skills and product offerings derived from distinctive competencies to markets where indigenous competitors lack these skills. The trend toward globalization has many implications: Industries are becoming global in scope Industry boundaries no longer stop at national borders. Shift from national to global markets This has intensified competition in industry after industry. Steady decline in barriers to cross-border trade and investment This has opened up many once protected markets to companies based outside of them. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Increasing Profitability and Profit Growth Through Global ExpansionExpanding the market by leveraging products Taking goods or services developed at home and selling them internationally Utilizing the distinctive competencies that underlie the production and marketing Cost economies from global volume Economies of scale from additional sales volume Lower unit costs and spreading of fixed costs Location economies Economic benefits from performing a value creation activity in the optimal location Leveraging the skills of global subsidiaries Applying these skills to other operations within firm’s global network Must also consider transportation costs, trade barriers, as well as the political and economic risks. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Pressures for Cost Reductions and Local ResponsivenessFigure 8.2 The best strategy for a company to pursue may depend on the kinds of pressures it must cope with: Cost Reductions or Local Responsiveness Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Pressures for Cost ReductionsPressures for cost reductions are greatest in industries producing commodity-type products where price is the main competitive weapon: Where differentiation on non-price factors is difficult Where competitors are based in low-cost location Where consumers are powerful and face low switching costs Where there is persistent excess capacity The liberalization of the world trade and investment environment Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Pressures for Local ResponsivenessThe greatest pressures for local responsiveness arise from: Differences in customer tastes and preferences Differences in infrastructure and traditional practices Differences in distribution channels Host government demands Dealing with these contradictory pressures is a difficult strategic challenge, primarily because being locally responsive tends to raise costs. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Choosing a Global StrategyStandard Globalization Strategy Reaping the cost reductions that come from economies of scale and location economies Business model based on pursuing a low-cost strategy on a global scale Makes the most sense when there are strong pressures for cost reduction and the demand for local responsiveness is minimal Localization Strategy Customizing the company’s goods or services so that thy provide a good match to tastes and preferences in different national markets Most appropriate when there are substantial differences across nations with regard to consumer tastes and preferences and where cost pressures are not too intense Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Choosing a Global StrategyTransnational Strategy Difficult to pursue due to its conflicting demands Business model that simultaneously: Achieves low costs » Differentiates across markets Fosters a flow of skills between subsidiaries Building an organization capable of supporting a transnational strategy is a complex and challenging task. International Strategy Multinational companies that sell products that serve universal needs (minimal need to differentiate) and do not face significant competitors (low cost pressure). In most international companies the head office retains tight control over marketing and product strategy. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.Basic Entry Decisions Which overseas markets to enter Assessment of long-run profit potential A function of the size of the market, purchasing power of consumers, the likely future purchasing power of consumers Balancing the benefits, costs, and risks associate with doing business in a country A function of economic development and political stability Timing of entry First-mover advantages: preempt and build share First-mover disadvantages: pioneering costs Scale of Entry and Strategic Commitments Entering on a large scale is a major strategic commitment With long term impacts that may be difficult to reverse Benefits and drawbacks of small-scale entry Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
The Choice of Entry ModeWhen and how to enter a new national market raise the question of how to determine the best mode or vehicle for entry. The optimal one depends on the company’s strategy: Exporting Most manufacturing companies begin their global expansion as exporters and later switch to one of the other modes. Licensing A foreign licensee buys the rights to produce a company’s product for a negotiated fee; licensee puts up most of the overseas capital. Franchising Franchising is a specialized form of licensing. The franchiser not only sells intangible property, but also insists that franchisee agrees to follow strict rules as to how it does business. Joint Ventures Typically a 50/50 venture – a favored mode for entering a new market Wholly-Owned Subsidiaries Parent company owns 100% of subsidiary’s stock – setup or acquire Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Entry ModesTable 8.1 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Choosing Among Entry ModesDistinctive Competencies and Entry Mode To earn greater returns from differentiated products or where competitors lack comparable products, the optimal mode of entry depends on the nature of the company’s distinctive competency: Technological know-how Wholly-owned subsidiary is preferred over licensing and joint ventures to minimize risk of losing control. Management know-how Franchising, joint ventures, or subsidiaries are preferred as risk is low of losing management know-how. Pressures for Cost Reduction and Entry Mode The greater the cost pressure, the more likely a company will want to pursue some combination of exporting and wholly-owned subsidiary: Export finished goods from wholly-owned subsidiary Marketing subsidiaries for overseeing distribution Tight control over local operations allows company to use profits generated in one market to improve position in other markets. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Global Strategic AlliancesGlobal Strategic Alliances are cooperative agreements between companies from different countries that are actual or potential competitors. They range from short-term contractual cooperative arrangements to formal joint ventures with equity participation. Advantages Facilitate entry into a foreign market Share fixed costs and associated risks Bring together complementary skills and assets Set technological standards for its industry Disadvantages Give competitors a low-cost route to gain new technology and market access Some alliances benefit the company. Beware, alliances can end up giving away technology and market access with very little gained in return. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Making Strategic Alliances WorkThe failure rate for international strategic alliances is quite high. Success seems to be a function of three main factors: Partner selection – A good partner: Helps the company achieve strategic goals Shares the firm’s vision for the purpose of the alliance Is unlikely to try to exploit the alliance to its own ends Conduct research on potential partners Alliance structure Risk of giving too much away is at an acceptable level Guard against opportunism by partner in alliance agreement Manner in which alliance is managed Sensitivity to cultural differences Build relationship capital through interpersonal relationships Successful partners view the alliance as an opportunity to learn rather than purely as a cost- or risk-sharing device. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
Structuring Alliances to Reduce OpportunismFigure 8.5 Opportunism includes the expropriation of technology or markets Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 10 Global Strategy. CHAPTER 10 Global Strategy.
Entry Strategy and Strategic Alliances
Entry Strategy Chapter 12.
The Strategy of International Business
International Business 8e
© McGraw Hill Companies, Inc., 2000 Entry Strategy and Strategic Alliances Chapter 14.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter, the reader should be able to: Explain the three basic decisions before entering a foreign market Explain.
Strategy in the Global Environment
Chapter 14 Entry Strategy and Strategic Alliances
Chapter 8: Opportunities and Outcomes of International Strategy
Copyright © 2001 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. Chapter 8 Strategy in the Global Environment Strategic Charles W. L. Hill Management Gareth.
Chapter 14 Entry Strategy and Strategic Alliances.
McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
Strategies for Competing in International Markets
International Business 7e
International Business An Asian Perspective
1 Strategy in the Global Environment Lecture 8. 2 Major Strategic Issues Why go global? What are the strategic choices? Market selection Market.
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