2 Chemistry of CarbonCarbon atoms have 4 valance electrons, which allows them to form strong covalent bonds with many other elements.
3 Chemistry of Carbon (cont.) Carbon can bond with many elements, including hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen to form the molecules of life.Living organisms are made of molecules that consist of carbon and these other elements.
4 One carbon atom can bond to another, which gives carbon the ability to form chains that are almost unlimited in length.C-C bonds can be single, double, or triple covalent bonds.
5 Chemistry of Carbon (cont.) Chains of carbon atoms can even close up on themselves and form rings.Carbon has the ability to form millions of different large and complex structures.“No element even comes close to matching carbon’s versatility.”
6 MacromoleculesCarbohydrates: The main source of energy for living thingsLipids: Used to store energy.Nucleic Acids: Store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, informationProteins: Control the rates of reactions and regulate cell processes.
7 Macromolecules (cont.) “Macro” = Giant…..so…. “macromolecules”They are made of hundreds/thousands of other moleculesFormed by a process known as polymerization, in which large compounds are built by joining smaller ones into larger ones.
8 Macromolecules (cont.) Smaller units are monomers, joining together to form polymers.Biochemists sort the “macros” (macromolecules) found into living things into groups (four – carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins) based on their chemical composition.
9 CarbohydratesCompounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms (ratio of 1:2:1)Living things use carbs as their main source of energy. Plants, some animals, and other organisms also use carbs for structural purposes.Breakdown of sugars (glucose) supplies immediate energy for cell activities.
10 Carbohydrates (cont.)Large macros formed from monosaccharides are known as polysaccharides.Animals store excess glycogen (“animal starch”).Plants use a different polysaccharide (starch)…and also cellulose.“Cellulose is the major component of wood and paper.”
11 Lipids Made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. Fats, oils, and waxesCan be used to store energy. Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings.
12 Lipids (cont.)If each carbon atoms in a lipid’s fatty acid chains is joined to another carbon atom by a single bond = saturatedIf there is at least one C-C double bond in a fatty acid, the fatty acid is said to be = unsaturated
13 Nucleic AcidsMacros containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.They are polymers assembled from individual monomers known as nucleotides:3 Parts-5-carbon sugarPhosphate GroupNitrogenous Base
14 Nucleic Acids (cont.)Some nucleotides contain the compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – which plays a role in capturing and transferring energy.Store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.2 kinds of nucleic acids:Ribonucleic acid (RNA)Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
15 Protein Macros that contain nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Proteins are polymers of molecules called amino acids.A protein is a functional molecule built from one of more polypeptides.
16 Protein (cont.)Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. Others form important cellular structures, while still others transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease.Shape of a protein is maintained by a variety of forces: ionic and covalent bonds, as well as van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds.