AP Biology proteins DNA Nucleic Acids Function: Stores all genetic material of an organism In the form of genes Provides the blueprint for building proteins DNA RNA proteins transfers information blueprint for new cells blueprint for next generation
Nucleic Acids Examples: RNA (ribonucleic acid) 3 forms serving different functions in building protiens: mRNA – carries the blueprint to build proteins tRNA – carries amino acid to build proteins rRNA – assists the ribosome to build protein DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Spiraled double helix Stores the organism’s entire genome (all genetic information) RNA DNA
AP Biology Nucleotides Are the monomers of nucleic acids Has 3 parts: nitrogen base 5 (pentose) carbon sugar Sugar in RNA is ribose Sugar in DNA is deoxyribose phosphate (PO 4 ) group
AP Biology Types of nucleotides 2 types of nucleotides different nitrogen bases purines double ring N base adenine (A) guanine (G) pyrimidines single ring N base cytosine (C) thymine (T) uracil (U) Purine = AG Pure silver!
AP Biology Nucleic polymer Backbone sugar to PO 4 bond phosphodiester bond new base added to sugar of previous base polymer grows in one direction N bases hang off the sugar-phosphate backbone
AP Biology Pairing of nucleotides Nucleotides bond between DNA strands H bonds purine :: pyrimidine A :: T 2 H bonds G :: C 3 H bonds
AP Biology DNA molecule Double helix H bonds between bases join the 2 strands A :: T C :: G
AP Biology double helix 1 st proposed as structure of DNA in 1953 by James Watson & Francis Crick