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High Performance Computing

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1 High Performance Computing
MPI and C-Language Seminars 2010 High Performance Computing

2 Seminar Plan Week 1 – Introduction, Data Types, Control Flow, Pointers
Week 2 – Arrays, Structures, Enums, I/O, Memory Week 3 – Compiler Options and Debugging Week 4 – MPI in C and Using the HPSG Cluster Week 5 – “How to Build a Performance Model” Week 6-9 – Coursework Troubleshooting (Seminar tutors available in their office)

3 MPI in C

4 Introduction to MPI MPI – Message passing interface, is an extension C to allow processors to communicate with each other. No need for a shared memory space – All data passes via messages. Every processor can send to every other processor but data must explicitly be received. Processors are kept synchronised by barriers.

5 MPI Hello World (1/2) The most basic of MPI programs:
#include <stdio.h> #include <mpi.h> int main(int argc, char *argv[]) int rank, size; MPI_Init(&argc, &argv); /* starts MPI */ MPI_Comm_rank(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &rank); /* get current process id */ MPI_Comm_size (MPI_COMM_WORLD, &size); /* get processor count*/ printf( "Hello world from process %d of %d\n", rank, size ); MPI_Finalize(); return 0; }

6 MPI Hello World (2/2) The MPI environment is established via the MPI_Init call. MPI_COMM_WORLD Is the default communicator. Defined as a group of processors MPI_Comm_size Is the number of processors in that communicator, for MPI_COMM_WORLD this represents all the processors. MPI_Comm_rank Is the position of that processor within the communicator provided.

7 Compiling MPI MPI has multiple different compilers for implementations in different languages we only need the C compiler. mpicc – C based compiler – For us GCC mpiCC / mpicxx / mpic++ – C++ based mpif90 / mpif77 – Fortran based Compiling is done in the same way as C. mpicc –o myprogram helloworld.c

8 Running MPI Once compiled an MPI program must be run with mpirun.
mpirun –np 2 myprogram Where 2 is the number of processors to run on. As there is no synchronisation in the program the order of the print statements is non deterministic. Note: Killing MPI jobs without letting them call MPI_Finalize may result in stray threads.

9 Environment Variables
MPI and GCC are installed remotely and their paths need to be added to your environment variables. The Module package allows you to quickly load and unload working environments. Module is installed on the cluster(Deep Thought) ‘module avail’ – List all available modules. ‘module load gnu/openmpi’ – Loads gcc-4.3 and openmpi. ‘module list’ – Shows currently loaded modules. ‘module unload gnu/openmpi’ – Unloads the module.

10 Message Passing in MPI

11 MPI_Send MPI_Send - Basic method of passing data.
Each MPI_Send must have a matching MPI_Recv. MPI_Send(message, length, data type, destination, tag, communicator); Message – Actual data in the form of a pointer. Length – Number of elements in the message. Data Type – The MPI Data type of each element in the message. Destination – Rank of the processor to receive the message. Tag – Identifier for when sending multiple messages. Communicator – Processor group (MPI_COMM_WORLD).

12 MPI_Recv Required for MPI_Send.
MPI_Recv(message, length, data type, source, tag, communicator, status); Message – Pointer to memory address to store the data. Length – Number of elements in the message. Data Type – The MPI Data type of each element in the message. Source – Rank of the processor to sending the message. Tag – Identifier for when sending multiple messages. Communicator – Processor group (MPI_COMM_WORLD). Status – A structure to hold the status of the send/recv.

13 Message Passing Example
Processors sending data from process 0 to 1. int size, rank, tag=0; int myarray[3]; MPI_Status status; MPI_Init(&argc, &argv); MPI_Comm_rank(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &rank); MPI_Comm_size(MPI_COMM_WORLD, &size); if(rank == 0){ myarray[0] = 1; myarray[1] = 2; myarray[2] = 3; MPI_Send(myarray, 3, MPI_INT, 1, tag, MPI_COMM_WORLD); }else{ MPI_Recv(myarray, 3, MPI_INT, 0, tag, MPI_COMM_WORLD, &status); } MPI_Finalize();

14 Process Synchronisation
Need to ensure that all processes are at the same point of execution. Implicit and explicit definitions; Barriers or blocking communications. MPI_Barrier(MPI_COMM_WORLD); Waits for all processors before any continue. MPI_Send / MPI_Recv Wait for the other process to finish receiving before continuing.

15 Non-Blocking Communication
MPI_Isend / MPI_Irecv instead of MPI_Send / MPI_Recv. ‘I’ stands for immediately – The calling process returns immediately regardless of the status of the actual operation. MPI_Isend – Allows you to continue processing while the send happens. MPI_Irecv – You must check the data has arrived before using it.

16 Accessing the Cluster

17 Deepthought – IBM Cluster
42 nodes. 2 Cores per node (Pentium III – 1.4Ghz). 2GB RAM per node. Myrinet fibre-optics interconnect. ssh scp ./karman.tar.gz Headnode ( Frankie ) – Not to be used for running jobs. All MPI jobs on Frankie will be killed

18 PBS (1/3) We use Torque(OpenPBS) and MAUI (Scheduler) .
Listing jobs in the queue: qstat –a frankie:                                                                 Req'd  Req'd  Elap Job ID  Username Queue Jobname  SessID NDS  TSK Memory Time  S Time frankie  sdh   hpsg  octave   11363   1  --    --  : R 68: frankie  sdh   hpsg  octave   11434   1  --    --  : R 68:41 Status Flags: Q – Queued. R – Running. E – Ending (Staging out of files) – NOT Error!!!! C – Complete.

19 PBS (2/3) Submit Files: Deleting a job: Submitting a Job:
From file: qsub –V –N <name> -l nodes=x:ppn=y submit.pbs An interactive Job: qsub –V –N <name> –l nodes=x:ppn=y -I Submit Files: #!/bin/bash #PBS –V cd $PBS_O_WORKDIR mpirun ./myprog Deleting a job: qdel <jobid>

20 PBS (3/3) Node information: Standard Output and Error.
pbsnodes –a state = job-exclusive np = 2 properties = vogon ntype = cluster jobs = 0/27613.frankie, 1/27614.frankie status = Standard Output and Error. For interactive jobs is as normal. Batch Jobs : Output File - <jobname / submit file name>.o<jobid> Error File - <jobname / submit file name>.e<jobid> File I/O takes place as usual. Concurrent file writes (same file) can be problematic – avoid.

21 Queues Different queues are specified to have access to different resources with different priorities. Debug queue – High priority low core count(~4) – need to use: qsub -q debug .... Interactive queue – High priority medium core count(~8) - no need to specify a queue. Batch queue – Normal priority high core count(~64).

22 Warning Shared resource - Don’t leave it until the last minute.
The queue can get very busy. Don’t leave interactive jobs running when not in use. Once again – Do not run jobs on Frankie!

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