2 How is DNA passed to new cells during cell division? MitosisMakes two duplicate body cellsUsed for growth and repair of cutsBefore the cell divides the DNA in the chromosomes will replicate so each cell has the same DNA and same amount of chromosomes
3 How is DNA passed to new cells during cell division? MeiosisMakes 4 different sex cells (gametes)Used to divide chromosome number in half so sex cells can combine during fertilization and produce a zygote with the same amount of chromosomes as the parent.Similar process as mitosis, but cells divide twice after DNA replicates to produce 4 cells with half as many chromosomes.
4 What is a chromosome?Structures in the nucleus that are composed of the DNA wrapped around a proteinHumans have 46 chromosomes in their body cells (only 23 in sex cells)There are 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes (chromosomes that contain the same alleles in the same location)Alleles – are one type of a gene. There are dominant and recessive alleles.
5 What is a chromosome? Karyotype 46 chromosomes 44 or them or 22 pairs are autosomal chromosomes, which do not affect your gender2 or 1 pair are sex chromosomes, which determine genderXX is a femaleXY is a maleKaryotypePicture of all the chromosomes in a cellmalefemale
6 How are traits passed through the generations? Parents pass on their genes to their offspring.The genotype (genes) that child receives determines their phenotype (appearance)If a dominant allele is present then the person will have the dominant phenotypeIf only recessive alleles are present then the person will have the recessive phenotypeSome individuals can be carriers (Bb) and pass on the recessive allele even though they have the dominant phenotype