A sodium chloride solution, NaCl(aq), does not contain any NaCl units. Only dissolved Na + ions and Cl − ions are present. Substances (such as NaCl) that completely dissociate into ions in solution are called strong electrolytes.
Pure water does not conduct electricity. Ions in a sodium chloride solution conduct electricity, causing the bulb to light.
Not all ionic compounds dissolve in water. AgCl does not dissolve in water. It does not dissolve into independent ions.
A compound is soluble in a particular liquid if it dissolves in that liquid; a compound is insoluble if it does not dissolve in the liquid. For ionic compounds, empirical rules of solubility have been deduced from observations of many compounds.
Soluble CompoundsExceptions NO 3 -, C 2 H 3 O 2 - Li +,Na +, K +, NH 4 + Cl -, Br -, I - Except those containing Ag +, Hg 2 2+, Pb 2+ SO 4 2- Except those containing Ba 2+, Ca 2+, Pb 2+, Sr 2+ Will dissolve in waterWill NOT dissolve in water
For example: Ca(NO 3 ) 2 is soluble LiBr is soluble Hg 2 Cl 2 is insoluble CaSO 4 is insoluble
Insoluble Compounds Exceptions S 2- Except those containing Li +, Na +, K +, NH 4 + Ca 2+, Ba 2+, Sr 2+ CO 3 2-, PO 4 3- Except those containing Li +, Na +, K +, NH 4 + OH - Except those containing Li +, Na +, K +, NH 4 + Those containing Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+ are slightly soluble Will dissolve in water Will NOT dissolve in water
For example: Al 2 S 3 is insoluble CaCO 3 is insoluble Pb(OH) 2 is insoluble K 2 S is soluble Na 3 PO 4 is soluble NH 4 OH is soluble
Use the solubility rules to predict which of the following substances are likely to be soluble in water: Aluminum nitrate Magnesium chloride Rubidium sulfate Nickel (II) hydroxide Lead (II) sulfide Magnesium hydroxide Iron (III) phosphate Silver bromide