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Team Training Dr. Steve Training & Development INP6325 * Adapted from Salas & Canon-Bowers.

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Presentation on theme: "Team Training Dr. Steve Training & Development INP6325 * Adapted from Salas & Canon-Bowers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Team Training Dr. Steve Training & Development INP6325 * Adapted from Salas & Canon-Bowers

2 Team Training Issues Increasing reliance on teams in orgs Tasks getting more complex Focus on Social Psych research in group dynamics E.g., social loafing, groupthink, communication How team training differs from individual training Focus on interdependence of task KSAs, Whereas individual training focuses on content, team training focuses on content + coordination An effective team is greater than the sum of its parts Ad hoc teams (e.g., all star teams) vs. intact teams Intact teams usually more effective

3 Team Training Variables Affecting Team Training Team leadership Team members Task characteristics

4 Team Success In order to be successful, team members must possess: Necessary KSAs, motivation, experience, personalities, and knowledge of role Ability to synchronize events and resources, coordinate behaviors, and pool information

5 ABCs of Team Performance TEAM PERFORMANCE ATTITUDES (Affect) - Potency - Cohesion & Morale - Collective Orientation BEHAVIORS (Skills) - Compensatory behavior - Shared problem models COGNITION (Knowledge) - Shared mental models - Implicit coordination

6 Shared Mental Models Shared mental models allow members to anticipate each others’ actions and requests E.g., football team in which every player understands the play and knows what all other teammates will do before they do it. Not just procedures, ability to adapt to change and anticipate others’ actions and tendencies Effective teams can coordinate with very little communication under stressful conditions because they use implicit coordinating methods (Kleinman & Serfaty)

7 Conducting Team Training What makes team training different from individual training? Team structures vary (e.g., status differences, group dynamics, norms) Task is interdependent Communication among members Pooled resources, info from multiple sources Constant coordination among individual efforts

8 Team training learning environment Must create environment where team members receive knowledge about team missions, objectives, tasks, and role expectations Must allow members to understand and observe KSAs and required performance Must be able to practice individual and team skills and receive feedback on both kinds Must include tools for diagnosing, assessing, and correcting team performance Conducting Team Training

9 Team Performance Model Input Variables Individual characteristics Team characteristics Task characteristics Work characteristics Team Processes Coordination Cooperation Communication Team Outcomes Quality Quantity Latency Errors Satisfaction Moderators Organizational Characteristics (resources available) Environmental Characteristics (stress)

10 Team Training Tools Team Task Analysis – like individual TA, but focus on tasks that require coordinated efforts How are tasks interdependent? What is the “Big Picture?” Specifies conditions, events, actions, and communication flow needed for effective team performance Levine, Brannick, Coovert & Llobert – Multi-phase Analysis of Performance (MAP) system – systematic approach to collecting info about team tasks and develop team training objectives

11 Performance Measurement – basis for assessing, diagnosing, and re-mediating team performance during training Performance measures should: Capture the moment to moment processes comprising teamwork Process measures including: activities, responses, behaviors, strategies Capture team outcomes Outcome measures including: results, success or failure Focus on both team and individual levels of performance Poor group performance could result from one poor individual performance Capture multi-faceted nature of team performance Attitudes, Behaviors, Cognitions Team Training Tools

12 Task Simulations/Exercises – means to practice team KSAs Practice is NOT training unless it is structured to provide realistic exercises that enhance learning opportunities Free-play vs. Event-based training Events elicit opportunity to demonstrate good or bad responses Events provide cues to instructor to assess behavior at key moments of instruction Team Training Tools

13 Guidelines for designing team exercises: Know what behaviors your are trying to elicit Develop clear objectives for specific team member behavior expected Provide opportunity for behaviors to be demonstrated more than once during exercise Exercises should be part of larger training program Consider factors that enhance realism in exercise fidelity Ensure participation by all team members Team Training Tools

14 Feedback – principles for individual feedback still apply (i.e., immediate, informative, positive, etc.) Must be given at both individual and team level Team behaviors originate at individual level E.g., poor communication is a team behavior, but may be affected by an individual not providing clear, concise commands/requests Team Training Tools

15 Team Learning/Training Principles Individual proficiency precedes team training Team training must evaluate, diagnose, and remediate Team training systems must allow for infor presentation, demonstration of teamwork competencies, practice, and feedback Team training must emphasize nature of task interdependence Team training must create systematic opportunities to practice the required team competencies If training tasks specific to team, train intact team If training tasks specific to team, practice in similar environment Guided practice (simulation and feedback) effective for teams that require task-specific competencies Cross-training effective for providing members task exposure Positional knowledge training useful for teams that require task-specific information Provide a variety of situations that team may confront on job Team Training Tools

16 Team Training Strategies Cross-training – learning multiple team member tasks Effective way to deal with team member turnover When introducing new team member, other members can ease the transition by knowing team tasks, roles Helps establish shared mental model (big picture) Enhances ability to make predictions/expectations of teammate behavior and info requests to improve coordination & communication

17 How to Cross-Train: Provide relevant and meaningful info about other team members, the task, equipment, & situation Demonstrate effective and ineffective teamwork Allow practice in realistic context Provide team and individual feedback Team Training Strategies

18 Team Coordination Training – Focus on teamwork Useful where complex behaviors must be coordinated E.g., surgical teams or aircrews Uses combination of methods (simulation & demos) to provide opportunities to coordinate skills and decision making Focus on passing of information, backup, and support Less emphasis on content Like practicing handing off of baton in relay race, not the running Team Training Strategies

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