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A DEAFinite Change for Equality

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1 A DEAFinite Change for Equality
By: Chloe Fleuret and Danelle Rekevics

2 Introduction Thomas Gallaudet wanted a change in the ability and judgment in society for the deaf and dumb In 1836 he traveled to Paris, France Met the head of the deaf and dumb school in Paris known as “Institution Nationale des Sourds-Muets” Galuduat met L’Epee and two of its deaf facualty members -Laurent Clerc and Jean Massieau In 1837 Gallaudet and Larent Clerc travelled back to U.S in order to establish a deaf and dumb institution

3 What was the problem and need for change?
Deaf and Dumb people were being treated as unequal Weren’t getting education they wanted/deserved Had the inability in communication skills Viewed as “Mentally Impaired” – upsetting them - Because they just lacked the full ability to hear/communicate Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet

4 Solutions to movement proposed
Open schools in U.S for the Deaf and Dumb Provide full education and allowed the deaf to communicate with each other and with the world Equality in society Stop the view of “Mentally Impaired” Provide these students with full education skills Goals: With the knowledge Gallaudet and Clerc had, it was realistic to assume that they could teach the employee’s and students sign language Eventually having the deaf treated equal was a goal that they wouldn’t be able to control, but by giving the deaf a way to communicate would help the problem

5 Earlier attempts to reform
Fray Meichior de Yebre: Spaniard who created the hand alphabet for sign language. Juan Pablo de Bonet: Simplified the letters of Yebre’s alphabet and was the first to publish and create a book for sign language. Abbe Charles Michel de L’Eppe: “Father of the deaf” established the first free public school in Paris in He learned all different signs and then taught them to the students at the school. Shining City on a Hill: Many of the teachers for the deaf or people who sought to help them were ministers or religious In order to build this holy society that the Massachusetts bay colony wanted, they needed to consider deaf people as humankind Giving deaf people a way to communicate allows missionaries to eventually share their beliefs and convert them environment at the schools are liberating and empowering(like a shining city on a hill)

6 Advancements of the Deaf culture
399 (?) B.C. Socrates quoted by Plato in “Cratylus” mentions the deaf who express themselves in gestures movement, depicting that which is light or a higher sphere by raising the hands or describing a galloping horse by imitating its motion. 1755- Abbe Charles Michel de L’Eppe of Paris founded the first free school for the deaf with sign language as a method of communication. This model of deaf school concept spread all over the European countries for the next hundred years. 1778- Samuel Heinicke of Leipzig Germany, promoted Oralism, a method of teaching deaf children spoken and written language through speech and lip-reading exclusively without use of sign language. 1817- Thomas Gallaudet saw the need of education for deaf children.He went to Europe and brought Laurent Clerc, a deaf teacher from deaf school in Paris, to America to start a deaf school together.

7 Continued... 1880’s- Alexander Graham Bell and the spread of Oralism took a strong grip on deaf education in America and all over the world. the World Congress of the Educators of the Deaf met in Milan, Italy and passed a resolution to promote Oralism in deaf education all over the world and dismiss all deaf teachers out of deaf schools. National Association for the Deaf was founded and they fought long and hard for the rights to use sign language in deaf community and education. 1900’s ’s- Oralism method proved failure in deaf education. Average deaf high school graduates ranks third grade in English. 1960’s- William Stokoe, a non-conventional linguist, who taught English at Gallaudet, recognized linguistic characters in ASL and started to have a deep interest to do research on sign. He eventually proved that ASL is a language. He published his finding.

8 1970’s- Sign Language Studies, Classes, Training, and Book materials began to emerge. Deaf culture recognized and defined with ASL. 1975- Sign Instructors Guidance Network. Today it is called ASL Teacher Association. 1970’s- Sign language slowly returns to deaf education but in Englishized forms. 1988- Movement to have a deaf president for the Gallaudet University 1990- ASL accepted as a foreign language credit and course offered in many college and high school at explosive growth. 1990’s- Many states legalize ASL as a foreign language course for HS and college A S L

9 Key Players in the Movement
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet: Wanted to teach Alice (Cogswell’s daughter) how to communicate, along with others like her Went to Europe to study the methods of teaching the deaf Established the first school for the deaf in America “All of the children of silence must be taught to sing their own song.” Laurent Clerc: As a child he grew up deaf Became very passionate about teaching the deaf how to speak through sign language Went down to America with Gallaudet to establish the first school in America for the deaf and dumb Mason Fitch Cogswell: Successful physician with a deaf daughter Persuaded Gallaudet to start a school and helped him raise money

10 Societies Reaction in the 19th Century
Gallaudet and Cogswell received support from friends, wealthy members of their community, and the city fathers. Clerc gathered support from the congress in 1818 and was well received by Henry Clay and members of congress. He then was introduced to President Monroe who applauded him for his work. the congressmen sponsored a bill granting the school with 23,000 acres of government land in Alabama, and was sold for $300,000. Society didn’t see the deaf culture with having much of a disadvantage after the school was established because since they were exposed to having the ability to communicate, they were able to learn and do the same as anybody else. Political Implications Not the governments responsibility to support the school for the deaf and the state didn’t want to be a part of it either Left to the private people to get donations to fund the manufacturing and establishment of the school, which was the only consequence of the movement

11 Who Opposed the Movement
Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the telephone and taught “visible speech” to deaf students Believed that American Sign Language should be banned He thought that in an English speaking country, english should be the only language spoken in public schools with public expense Oral communication was what he believed should be the dominant method of instruction for the deaf

12 Achievement Thomas Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc returned to U.S and opened an official school for deaf known as “American School for Deaf” in Hartford, Connecticut Deaf community could communicate through sign language and oralism oralism allowed the deaf community so socialize with people who didn’t have a hearing deficiency Schools began teaching lipreading and oralism as well as sign language Forty years after the Hartford school, twenty more were established in different states A century after the Hartford school, fifty schools were established Deaf students began to have the right to attend local private and religious schools Residential schools created a regimented life for the students

13 Deaf Civil Rights Movement
In March 1988, the Gallaudet University changed the future for Deaf people Students protested and shut down the school campus and dorms when the vice chancellor from University of North Carolina was chosen for president at the Gallaudet University. Deaf President Now!

14 Related Historical Events
Like the deaf, the blind were considered mentally impaired because they couldn’t read, work, or hunt food like others. Most lived their lives as beggars or were kept by their families. In 1829 the first school for the blind in America was established, called the New England Asylum for the Blind. Louis Braille was the inventor for the tactile reading and writing system for the blind. New England Asylum in Massachusetts

15 Historians View on the Movement
Horace Mann: ( ) “Father of the Common School” and member of the whig party Believed that everyone should be exposed to and have the ability to go to school but if one can’t learn to speak or lip read, than they are considered deficient Started the idea of oralism for the deaf James Monroe: ( ) 5th president of the United States Was mesmerized by Clerc’s ability to sign when they were introduced He applauded Clerc for his work in building a school Was the most prominent visitor of the school His visit inspired the students

16 The Movements Overall Effect
To this day deaf people are treated just as equally as anybody else. They have the ability and opportunity to work, live on their own, marry one another, and be just as successful as anyone else. All the people that contributed to making a difference for the deaf community led the way for a future with equality and without discrimination. Without the establishment of schools for the deaf, the deaf community wouldn’t have the same education as other students with hearing capabilities. They also wouldn’t be able to communicate with one another which allows them to be social and make a living on their own. This movement has made an impactful difference for the population and the world.

17 Reflections Danelle: Learning about the change in history for the deaf community was very interesting to me because I never knew how mistreated the deaf were back in time. The fact that people didn’t want to give deaf people the same rights as they had is upsetting to me because people can’t help the way that they’re born. I think it was not only brave for Gallaudet to start a school for the deaf in America, but also very considerate of him. It was a bold move because he could have received very negative feedback from society since many people believed that the deaf didn’t deserve to be educated. It was considerate of him because now deaf people throughout all of America have the same rights and freedom as everyone else. It has definitely helped create more of a “perfect society” that Americans in 1820 were hoping to achieve. I enjoyed learning about the motives Gallaudet had in making this huge step to change the way humankind lives and communicates. After learning about the effect sign language has on the world, it makes me want to learn this language myself.

18 Reflections Chloe: In my opinion, learning about the deaf community and their day to day lives was very interesting. I found it very saddening how deaf people were mistreated, and not treated as an equal in society very disappointing. I never fully understood how difficult it would be to have a lack of hearing and the impact it would have on my day to day life. Now that I look back at it I realize how lucky I am to have the full ability. Another important aspect of the deaf community was how overtime people began to treat deaf people as equals, however, this took a long time—creating an impact of society. Overall, I find the history and background of the deaf community and the development of the deaf culture truly fascinating.

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