Presentation on theme: "Coral reef by Lyxchel Cummings. 109 countries have Coral reefs. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest Coral formation in the planet, it is located in."— Presentation transcript:
109 countries have Coral reefs. The Great Barrier Reef is the largest Coral formation in the planet, it is located in Queensland, Australia. Most Coral reefs are found in shallow tropical waters along the shores of islands and continents. The majority of Coral reefs are found in the Pacific Ocean spanning from Australia to the Philippine Islands. Others are located in the Caribbean Islands and on the Atlantic Ocean floors.
The Coral reef has been described as the rainforest of the sea because biodiversity in both ecosystems are so similar. Coral reefs are the home of some of the most colorful and most interesting types of fish, plants, and animals.
What is Coral Reef? Coral reef’s are animals not plants. They are made up of tiny organisms called coral polyps.
Polyps Coral heads are not a single organism they are a group of many individual; but identical polyps. Usually a few millimeters in size. Their diets consist of microscopic plankton, small organisms, and tiny fish.
Small fish are definitely part of the Coral’s diet they mostly depend upon the nutrients from the photosynthetic unicellular algae (zooxanthellae). Coral has tentacles that sting the small fish.
Reproduction Corals can be both sexual and asexual. Hermatypic corals release gametes (eggs and sperm) into the water in order to spread their offspring. Several thousand larvae are produced each year by the colonies in order to increase the odds of survival. Only a few new colonies will be able to form.
All spawning is done at the same time by the many different types of coral. The gametes cloud the water during this time and it is usually done at night.. The Coral rely on cues from the environment; lunar changes, sunset type and chemical signals to synchronize this event.
The coral’s rich colors are provided by tiny algae.
Color Coral is actually clear. The color comes from the zooxanthellae.(a single cell algae) which lives inside the coral tissue. Corals become clear when they expel their zooxanthellae which allows you to see the white calcium carbonate skeletons, a process known as bleaching
Humans as well as Natural causes have led to the degradation of the Coral reef
Global warming has been blamed for the bleaching of Coal reefs, however many factors come into play.
Threats to the Coral Crown of Thorn Starfish-eat the particles from runoff that cause algae growth. They also eat on the polyps in excess which causes damage to the Coral.
Salinity decrease due to excessive rain Salinity decrease due to excessive rain Increases and decreases in water temperature over a period of time. Increases and decreases in water temperature over a period of time. ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) activities during the 1980’s caused substantial bleaching ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) activities during the 1980’s caused substantial bleaching When acid is increased in ocean waters, it is hard for the Coral to form shells, as well as many other marine life species. When acid is increased in ocean waters, it is hard for the Coral to form shells, as well as many other marine life species.
Testing of Coral reefs is crucial in our attempts to preserve them Knowledge about species in the ocean waters is steadily increasing.
Important to Humans Important to Humans Chemical compounds derived from Corals are used in medicines for cancer, pain, AIDS, and bone grafting in humans. Local food source Tourist income Jewelry rarity (Red Coral/Fire Coral) due to over harvesting
How the Coral reef affects the ecosystem of the ocean
Coral Reefs are not extinct It is possible for Corals to flourish again once they have been damaged. It is possible for Corals to flourish again once they have been damaged. In time coral reefs replenish themselves but it will be a slow process! In time coral reefs replenish themselves but it will be a slow process!