2 A) When? *B) Where (mainly)? *C) Why (originally)? *
3 1) 74 people were invited, only *55 came D) Who?1) 74 people were invited, only *55 came
4 D) Who (cont.) 2) Statistics a) 30 were Revolutionary War veterans b) 39 were members of the Confederation Congressc) 7 were state governorsd) 8 were signers of the Declaration of Ind.e) 2 had signed the Articles of Confederationf) 2 would become US presidents (1would become a vice-president)g) Average age – 42
5 D) Who? (cont.)3) Who was there and who wasn’t?a) there – George Washington, Ben Franklin (who was 81 at the time), Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison (the “father” of the Constitution)
6 b) not there- Samuel Adams and John Hancock (not chosen to be there), Thomas Jefferson and John Adams (out of the country at the time), Patrick Henry (refused the invitation), and any delegate from Rhode Island
7 c) also not there1) the public2) the press3) Why?
9 1) Organization a) President of the convention? – * b) To have a quorum they needed seven states – What is a quorum? c) Each state had one voted) A simple majority would have the final saye) Sessions were to be kept? *
10 1) Organization cont. f) The changing of the purpose f1) Edmund Randolph proposed that the convention disregard the Articles and instead write a new documentf2) the convention agrees and started work on the Constitution
11 Organization cont. g) the delegates wanted: 1) a limited government – one in which the executive (or monarch) has limited powers – as found in what country?2) representative government – one where the people elect representatives
12 h) they also wanted a separate legislative, executive, and judicial branch as opposed to one branch as under the Articles of Conf.i) they wanted to take away from the states the power to print money – as opposed to what was found under what document?
13 2) The question of representation – How to make a fair legislative branch?
14 a) Virginia Plan1) authors – Edmund Randolph and James Madison
15 Virginia Plan 2) provisions – called for 3 branches a) 2 houses in the legislative branch – a lower house chosen by the people and an upper house chosen by the lowerb) the legislative branch could also force states to obey national lawc) an executive branch chosen by the legislatured) a judicial branch chosen by the legislaturee) # of members from each state in the legislature would be determined by populationf) members of both the executive and judicial could veto the legislative
16 3) What type of states did this favor? Virginia Plan3) What type of states did this favor?
17 b) New Jersey Plan1) author – William Patterson
18 New Jersey Plan 2) provisions a) one house legislature with one vote for each state to make sure all the states were equal
19 b) Congress (not the states) would have the power to tax and regulate trade c) It would have an executive branch with more than one main leader (all of whom are chosen by the legislature)
20 New Jersey Plan d) Judicial branch is chosen by the executive e) Wanted to alter the Articles of Confederation not make the Constitution
22 Connecticut Compromise c) Finally there came the Connecticut Compromise1) author – Roger Sherman
23 Connecticut Compromise 2) provisionsa) two house legislature
24 1) the House of Representatives a) would be elected by the peopleb) # of members from each state would be determined by state populationc) all spending and taxing bills would originate in this housed)What states would have the advantage?
25 Connecticut Compromise 2) Senatea) elected by the state legislaturesb) 2 members per statec) What states’ rights would be protected here?
27 3) The Slavery problemsa) Is a slave worth the same as white man?
28 1) problem – how to determine how slaves were to be regarded in terms of the population of the US 2) Why is this a problem?a) representation – if the slaves are regarded as full blown people they can effect the # of representatives in the House
29 The Slavery problemsb) if slaves were regarded the same as a voter in terms of population, who would this benefit? c) The other problem - taxation – more people = more taxesd) If slaves were regarded the same as a voter in terms of taxes who would this benefit?
30 The Slavery problems3) solution – slaves are to be counted as 3/5 of a person for both taxes and representation (this became known as the 3/5 compromise)
31 The Slavery problems4) Note: when the 13th amendment that outlawed slavery was passed the 3/5 Compromise became null and void
32 b) Slave trade1) problem – north wanted government to have control over trade – the south was worried that the north would eventually outlaw all slave trade2) solution – Congress would control interstate (meaning between state) and foreign trade and promise not to outlaw slave trade until 1808
33 c) slavery in general 1) Problem a) several northern states had taken steps to stop slavery or at least the slave trade (like Mass., Del., Conn., RI., and Penn.)b) meanwhile southern states desperately needed it – Why?
34 slavery in general2) solution – chose not to include it in the Constitution
35 The president problem4) The president problem – after arguing whether the legislature, the states, or the people directly should elect the president, they decided on an independent group to be in charge of the election – this group is called what?
36 5) There was only one problem though … there already was an elected president – his name …
37 F) Finally on Sept. 17th, 1787 (after 89 days of meetings) the Constitution was signed originally by 39 delegates (some of the original 55 had gone home – 3 including George Mason refused to sign it)
38 G) Even though the Constitution was signed the fights weren’t over yet…