2 What is Diffusion?Diffusion is the natural tendency of molecules to flow from higher concentrations to lower concentrations of solute particles until the concentration is the same on both sides of the membrane.
3 Diffusion across a Membrane Semi - Permeable membranes –Living membranes alter what may pass through at any given time
6 Diffusion of LiquidsWhen two fluids mix together without any help from us.We can explain this using the idea that particles move.Instead of the particles moving around and mingling with particles of the same material, they move around and mingle with particles of the other material as well
7 How Diffusion of Liquid in Liquid Works Add a drop of food coloring in a container of water.The color will “diffuse” or disperse throughout the entire sample until the sample is a uniform color.
9 Diffusion of GasesA bottle of perfume opened in one corner of a room would slowly fill the roomMolecules disperse from a concentrated source, the newly opened bottle, until they are evenly distributed throughout the room
11 How Diffusion of Solid in Liquid Works The solute (solid) dissolving in the solvent is also an example of diffusion.The water “attacks” the solute which eventually dissolve.What are ways that this process in increased?
12 Living cells contain aqueous (water) solution and they are surrounded by aqueous solutions If the concentration of dissolved substances (solutes) is not the same inside and outside the cell –A process called osmosis occurs
13 Osmosis:the diffusion of water molecules from an area with less solutes (low concentration) to an area with more solutes in the solution (high concentration)
14 What are semi-permeable membranes? Those membranes that allow the solvent (liquid), but not the solutes to pass from one side of the membrane to anotherEX: egg, cellophane, and cell membranesIn these membranes the pores are large enough for water to pass through but too small for other compounds to pass
16 ExamplesSailor died from dehydration due to the high concentration of salt in the seawater.After drinking the seawater the high concentration of salt caused the water to travel out of his cells.This caused the cells to dehydrate or shrink
20 Hypertonic SolutionThe word "HYPER" means more, in this case there are more solute (salt) molecules outside the cell, which causes the water to be sucked in that direction.
21 If the concentration of the solute outside the cell is less than inside the cell it is called a hypotonic solution.Hemolysis will occur – additional water will travel into the cell causing it to swell and rupture.
26 Isotonic SolutionIf the concentration of solute (salt) is equal on both sides, the water will move back in forth but it won't have any result on the overall amount of water on either side."ISO" means the same
27 REVIEWDiffusion is the natural tendency of molecules to flow from higher concentrations to lower concentrationsMovement may be of molecules or ions across a semi-permeable membraneDepends on molecular size, ionic charge, and molecular solubility (ability of solute to dissolve in solvent)
28 ReviewOsmosis: the diffusion of water molecules from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration.The water diffuses through the semi-permeable membrane until the concentration of the solutes is the same on both sides.
29 Diffusion or Osmosis? 1% salt (low concentration) in the bag 10% salt (high concentration) surrounding the bagWhich way does the water move?
30 Diffusion or Osmosis? Starch solution in the bag Iodine solution surrounding the bag.What do you predict will happen?