Presentation on theme: " Homeostasis – Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment; All organisms have ranges that are tolerated (i.e. pH and."— Presentation transcript:
Homeostasis – Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment; All organisms have ranges that are tolerated (i.e. pH and temperature) Example - Paramecium contain contractile vacuoles that collect and remove excess water, thereby helping to achieve homeostasis
Composed of a double-layered sheet called the lipid bilayer which includes: 1. Two layers of lipids (phosphate group + two fatty acids) Creates a strong barrier that is flexible 2. Proteins that are embedded in the bilayer Some form channels and pumps that help to move material across the cell membrane 3. Carbohydrate molecules that are attached to the proteins Allows individual cells to identify one another
Concentration - the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume Example: 12 grams of salt in 3 liters of water Concentration = 12 g/3 L (4 g/L) If you had 12 grams of salt in 6 liters of water concentration = 12 g/6 L (2 g/L) ***The 1st solution is 2X as concentrated as the 2 nd.
Passive transport – Transport of materials from a higher to lower concentration. Energy is not required for this to occur. Active transport – Transport of materials from a lower to higher concentration. Energy is needed for this to occur. high low Weeee!!! high low This is gonna be hard work!!
Three Types of Passive Transport: 1. Diffusion - Transport of substances 2. Osmosis – Transport of water 3. Facilitative Diffusion – Transport with the help of carrier proteins (for molecules too large to pass through the membrane without help)
Diffusion - Process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated when the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution it has reached equilibrium
Because diffusion depends upon random particle movements, substances diffuse across membranes without requiring the cell to use energy. Even when equilibrium is reached, particles of a solution will continue to move across the membrane in both directions. Particles are always in motion!
Many substances can diffuse across biological membranes, but some are too large or too strongly charged to cross the lipid bilayer. If a substance is able to diffuse across a membrane, the membrane is said to be permeable to it. A membrane is impermeable to substances that cannot pass across it. Most biological membranes are selectively permeable, meaning that some substances can pass across them and others cannot.
Water passes easily across most membranes, but most solute does not. Osmosis - Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane High to low concentration
There are more sugar molecules on the right. That means that the concentration of water is lower on the right than the left. The membrane is permeable to water but not to sugar. As a result, there is a net movement of water from the area of high concentration to the area of low concentration.
Water will tend to move across the membrane to the left until equilibrium is reached. Isotonic - when the concentration of two solutions is the same Hypotonic - when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes Hypertonic - when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
For organisms to survive, they must have a way to balance the intake and loss of water. Osmosis exerts a pressure known as osmotic pressure on the hypertonic side of a selectively permeable membrane. Osmotic Pressure - The force exerted by osmosis that “pushes” water through a selectively permeable membrane to make the concentration of solutes the same on both sides.
Turgor Pressure - The force behind the cell walls of plants, which allows them to keep their shape. Very similar to osmotic pressure, but occurs in plants. When the cells contents press the plasma membrane against the cell wall and the cell wall in turn presses against the membrane
The cell is filled with salts, sugars, proteins, and other molecules. If placed in a hypertonic solution. Cell will shrink or become shriveled ( plasmolysis ) Water moves out of cell. If placed in a hypotonic solution Cell will be swell or become enlarged. Cytolysis occurs when a cell ruptures or lyses. Water moves into the cell.
Plasmolysis occurs as the cell shrinks. Cytolysis occurs when the cell bursts