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Presentation on theme: "CELLULAR COMPONENTS & PROCESES"— Presentation transcript:


2 MODERN CELL THEORY The cell theory states 3 facts that scientist know about all cells. 1. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function. (Keeps things alive)

3 2. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells
2. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. (Unicellular or Multicellular)

4 3. All cells come from other cells.

5 There are two types of cells:
Prokaryotic- cells that DO NOT have a nucleus or other cell ORGANELLES Eukaryotic- cells with a NUCLEUS & cell ORGANELLES REMEMBER YOU ARE EUKARYOTIC!


7 Eukaryotic Cell (Animal Cell)

8 The parts of a cell that carry out a function (Jobs) are called cell ORGANELLES:
All cells have the following organelles: Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes (Make proteins) DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid

9 ORGANELLES little “organs” of the cell
Organelles are present in BOTH plant cells and animal cells Carry out cellular functions (jobs) Break down materials Repair Storage

10 Eukariotic Organelles
Some organelles are only found in Eukaryotic Cells (plant and animal cells) Don’t Forget—all cells have DNA, cell membrane, cytoplasm

11 Both Plant and Animal Cells
Nucleus Mitochondria Endoplasmic Reticulum Vacuoles Animal Cell Plant Cell Centriole Cell Wall Chloroplast

12 Nucleus cellular control center
Controls cellular activity contains hereditary material (DNA in chromosomes) self duplicating structure -divides when the cell divides


14 Nuclear membrane surrounds nucleus allowing certain materials to enter and leave

15 Ribosomes sites of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
may be free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum


17 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
In charge of storage, synthesis, and transport of materials within the cell Breaks down drugs “HIGHWAY” for cell transport


19 Cytoplasm over 80 % water “HOLDS” cell organelles in place
site of most organelles and cellular chemical reactions


21 Vacuole Two Types: Storage vacuole--store and digest ingested (eaten) food or stores H2O Contractile vacuole-pumps excess water from cells maintaining homeostasis

22 Plant Cells have very LARGE vacuoles to store A LOT of water

23 Lysosome digest bacteria and foods entering the cell
breakdown worn out cell organelles


25 Mitochondria "Powerhouse of the cell" “Mighty” mitochondria
carries on cellular respiration – how are cells use oxygen to make energy Energy=ATP

26 Golgi apparatus (complex)
usually located near the nucleus Packages waste & harmful materials to be sent out of the cell

27 Cell membrane The cell membrane is SEMI-PERMEABLE
(selectively permeable) Only some things (selected things) can enter the cell

Centriole- looks like spaghetti Helps animal cells divide


Cell Wall- surrounds and supports the cell Gives the plant cell structure & support Chloroplasts- green in color- contain the green pigment chlorophyll which carries on photosynthesis Uses the sun’s energy to make food for the plant


32 Movement inside the Cell
The cell is always exchanging “things” with what is outside Objects such as glucose (sugar), water, salt and wastes need to move into or out of the cell There are three types of movement

33 Types of movement in Cells
1.Passive transport - movement of substances through a membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration No energy needed (ATP) – From a crowded area to a less crowded area

34 Traveling through the cell membrane
Two types of Passive Transport (no ATP) Diffusion and Osmosis The goal of both is to reach EQUILIBRIUM within the cell An equal amount inside and outside the cell (neither is crowded)

35 Diffusion When molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

36 Osmosis The movement of water through a membrane from a region of higher to lower concentration Solute - substance being dissolved in a liquid (ex. salt) Solvent - substance doing the dissolving (ex. water) Semi-permeable membrane (selectively permeable)-allows some molecules to pass but not others

37 So, describe how “Kool-Aid”® is made with regard to the terms “solute” and “solvent”. What is the “universal solvent”?

38 Types of Movement 2.Active transport - movement of substances through a membrane from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration – requires energy (ATP) going into a crowded area

39 Exocytosis- the movement of a substance out of the cell
Endocytosis- the movement of a substance into the cell

40 Phagocytosis- cytoplasm of cell surrounds and engulfs particle—
ex. White blood cell engulfs a bacteria (antigen) and kills it


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