Presentation on theme: "Cellular Transport Notes Ch. 3.4. About Cell Membranes 1.All cells have a cell membrane 2.Functions: a.Controls what enters and exits the cell to maintain."— Presentation transcript:
About Cell Membranes 1.All cells have a cell membrane 2.Functions: a.Controls what enters and exits the cell to maintain an internal balance called homeostasis. b.Separate cytoplasm from the environment TEM picture of a real cell membrane.
3.Structure of cell membrane Lipid Bilayer -2 layers of phospholipids a.Phosphate head is polar (water loving) = Hydrophilic b.Fatty acid tails non-polar (water fearing) = Hydrophobic c.Proteins embedded in membrane About Cell Membranes (continued) Phospholipid Lipid Bilayer
Proteins Polar heads love water & dissolve. Non-polar tails hide from water. Carbohydrate cell markers Fluid Mosaic Model of the cell membrane http://www.susan ahalpine.com/ani m/Life/memb.htm
Cell membranes have pores (holes) in it a.Selectively permeable: Allows some molecules in and keeps other molecules out b.The structure helps it be selective! About Cell Membranes (continued) Pores
Outside of cell Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Lipid Bilayer Proteins Transport Protein Phospholipids Carbohydrate chains Structure of the Cell Membrane Go to Section:
Effects of Osmosis on Life A cell maintains homeostasis (maintaining a stable, internal environment) through osmosis. Osmosis- diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane. Only water molecules move by themselves through the membrane.
AS Biology, Cell membranes and Transport 8 Osmosis Cell membrane partially permeable. Inside cell Outside cell VERY High concentration of water molecules. VERY Low concentration of water molecules. Sugar molecule DILUTE SOLUTION CONCENTRATED SOLUTION
AS Biology, Cell membranes and Transport 9 Osmosis Cell membrane partially permeable. Inside cell Outside cell High conc. of water molecules. Low conc. of water molecules. OSMOSIS
AS Biology, Cell membranes and Transport 10 Osmosis Cell membrane partially permeable. Inside cell Outside cell OSMOSIS EQUILIBRIUM. Equal water concentration on each side. Equal water potential has been reached. There is no net movement of water – water moves in and out of cell at the same rate.
What is a solution? 2 Parts: Solvent – Usually a liquid like water Solute – Usually a solid such as sugar, salt
Hypotonic Solution Hypotonic: The solution has a lower concentration of solutes and a higher concentration of water than inside the cell. (Low solute (HYPO); High water) Result: Water moves from the solution to inside the cell): Cell Swells and bursts open (cytolysis)! Osmosis Animations for isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutionsOsmosis
Hypertonic Solution Hypertonic: The solution has a higher concentration of solutes and a lower concentration of water than inside the cell. (High solute (HYPER); Low water) Result: Water moves from inside the cell into the solution: Cell shrinks (Plasmolysis)! Osmosis Animations for isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutionsOsmosis shrinks
Isotonic Solution Isotonic: The concentration of solutes in the solution is equal to the concentration of solutes inside the cell. ISO = THE SAME Result: Water moves equally in both directions and the cell remains same size! (Dynamic Equilibrium) Osmosis Animations for isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutionsOsmosis
What type of solution are these cells in ? A CB HypertonicIsotonicHypotonic
Types of Cellular Transport Passive Transport cell doesn’t use energy 1.Diffusion 2.Facilitated Diffusion 3.Osmosis Active Transport cell does use energy 1.Protein Pumps 2.Endocytosis 3.Exocytosis high low This is gonna be hard work!! high low Weeee!! ! Animations of Active Transport & Passive TransportAnimations
Passive Transport cell uses no energy molecules move randomly Molecules spread out from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. (With the concentration gradient) (High Low) Three types:
3 Types of Passive Transport 1.Diffusion – Gases such as O 2 and CO 2. 2.Osmosis – diffusion of water 3.Facilitated Diffusion – diffusion with the help of transport proteins – transport of sugars, ions and amino acids.
Passive Transport: 1. Diffusion 1.Diffusion: random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. (High to Low) Diffusion continues until all molecules are evenly spaced (equilibrium is reached)-Note: molecules will still move around but stay spread out. http://bio.winona.edu/berg/Free.htm Simple Diffusion AnimationSimple Diffusion Animation
2. Facilitated diffusion: diffusion of specific particles through transport/carrier proteins found in the membrane a.Transport Proteins are specific – they “select” only certain molecules to cross the membrane b.Transports larger or charged molecules Facilitated diffusion (Channel Protein) Diffusion (Lipid Bilayer) Passive Transport: 2. Facilitated Diffusion Carrier Protein AB http://bio.winona.edu/berg/Free.htm
High Concentration Low Concentration Cell Membrane Glucose molecules Protein channel Passive Transport: 2. Facilitated Diffusion Go to Section: Transport Protein Through a Cellular Transport From a- High Low Channel Proteins animationsChannel Proteins
AS Biology, Cell membranes and Transport 24 Facilitated Diffusion: Molecules will randomly move through the opening like pore, by diffusion. This requires no energy, it is a PASSIVE process. Molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low conc.
Active Transport cell uses energy actively moves molecules to where they are needed Movement from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration (Against the concentration gradient) (Low High) Three Types:
Types of Active Transport 1. Protein Pumps - transport proteins that require energy to do work Example: Sodium / Potassium Pumps are important in nerve responses. Protein changes shape to move molecules: this requires energy!
Types of Active Transport 2. Endocytosis: taking bulky material into a cell Uses energy Cell membrane in-folds around food particle “cell eating” forms food vacuole & digests food This is how white blood cells eat bacteria!
Types of Active Transport 3. Exocytosis: Forces material out of cell in bulk membrane surrounding the material fuses with cell membrane Cell changes shape – requires energy EX: Hormones or wastes released from cell
How Organisms Deal with Osmotic Pressure Bacteria and plants have cell walls that prevent them from over-expanding. In plants the pressure exerted on the cell wall is called turgor pressure. A protist like paramecium has contractile vacuoles that collect water flowing in and pump it out to prevent them from over-expanding. Salt water fish pump salt out of their specialized gills so they do not dehydrate. Animal cells are bathed in blood. Kidneys keep the blood isotonic by remove excess salt and water.
Contractile vacuole full Contractile vacuole empty Paramecium
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