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The Big Stick to Latin America Chapter 22, Section 4.

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1 The Big Stick to Latin America Chapter 22, Section 4

2 By the late 1800’s the United States had built an empire that stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean The nation needed a shorter, quicker route between the two oceans

3 “I Took the Canal Zone” Isthmus: 50 miles wide in panama separating the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea A canal through the isthmus would cut the journey from San Francisco to New York City by 8,000 miles.

4 Turned Down by Columbia Theodore Roosevelt was eager to build a canal in Panama Panama was part of Columbia Secretary of State, John Hay, offered Columbia $10 million cash plus $250,000a year to rent a strip of land across the Panama Columbia turned down the offer

5 Turned Down by Columbia Roosevelt was furious. ◦He knew many Panamanians wanted the canal because it would make Panama a crossroads for world trade ◦He also knew many Panamanians wanted to break away from Columbia ◦Roosevelt made it clear to the rebels in Panama that the United States would support them

6 Revolution in Panama The Nashville, an American warship drooped anchor in the port of Colon, panama. The next day panama rebels rebelled against Columbia American forces stopped Columbia from crushing the revolt Panama declared itself an independent republic Panama quickly agreed to let the U.S. build a canal on terms similar to what the U.S. had offered Columbia

7 Defeating a Tiny Enemy Building the canal was difficult

8 Deadly diseases Engineer’s biggest challenge was cutting through miles of rock Doctor’s biggest challenge was the mosquito carrying malaria and yellow fever

9 Yellow Jack Yellow jack or yellow fever caused fewer deaths than malaria but yellow fever victims suffered horribly

10 A breakthrough In Panama workers had to find every pool of water where mosquitoes lay their eggs A small army sprayed tons of insecticide and spread oil on still water to kill mosquito eggs 1906 Yellow fever had disappeared from Panama

11 Digging the Big Ditch 40,000 workers struggled digging the ditch Most were black from the West Indies The new waterway helped the trade of many nations American merchants benefited the most because they could now ship goods cheaply to South America and Asia Many Latin American nations were bitter at the way the US had gained control of the canal

12 Policing Latin America Americans had to police the surrounding premises of the panama Canal

13 Expanding the Monroe Doctrine Roosevelt Corollary: Theodore Roosevelt claimed the right to intervene in Latin America to preserve law and order The US could force Latin Americans to pay its debt to foreign nations and keep those nations from meddling in Latin American affairs.

14 Expanding the Monroe Doctrine 1905 Dominican Republic could not repay its debts the US took control of its finances and paid its debt Most Latin Americans strongly resented this interference in their affairs

15 Dollars for bullets President Williams Howard Taft, TR’s successor, also favored a strong American role in Latin America He urged American investors to invest in Latin America

16 Dollars for bullets Dollar diplomacy: idea that it is better to trade then to warships to expand ◦American investors helped build roads, railroads, and harbors in Latin America ◦Theses improvement increased trade Dollar Diplomacy problems ◦American businesses often meddled in the political affairs of host countries and used military force to keep order ◦Latin Americans denounced these invasions

17 Troubles in Mexico American invested about $1 billion in Mexico to develop mines, oil wells, railroads, and ranches Most Mexican were poor working the land of a few wealthy families Mexican groups revolted

18 Wilson’s policy Wilson stayed neutral hoping Mexico would develop a democratic government 1914 Mexico arrested several American sailors Wilson ordered the US Navy to occupy Veracruz, a Mexican port

19 Wilson’s policy General Francisco “Pancho” Villa a rebel leader raided the town of Columbus, New Mexico, killing 17 Americans General John J. Pershing: sent by Wilson in to New Mexico to capture Villa

20 Pershing’s raid Pershing led an army of 6,000 soldiers Mexico protested the invasion Wilson withdrew the troops The episode poisoned relations with Mexico for years

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