Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Quantitative Research Process"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to the Quantitative Research Process Chapter 2Introduction to the Quantitative Research Process
2 Quantitative Research Formal, objective, rigorous, systematic process for generating informationDescribes new situations, events, or conceptsExamines relationships among variablesDetermines the effectiveness of treatments
3 Quantitative Research (cont’d) DescriptiveCorrelationalQuasi-experimentalExperimentalIncreasedcontrolwith typeof study
4 Descriptive ResearchExploration and description of phenomena in real-life situationsNew meaning is discovered and the description of concepts is accomplishedHelps to identify relationships
5 Correlational Research Looks at the relationship between two or more variablesDetermines the strength and type of relationshipsExplains what is seenNo cause and effect
6 Quasi-experimental Research Examines cause-and-effect relationshipsLess control by researcher than true experimental designsSamples are not randomly selected.All variables in the study cannot be controlled by the researcher.
7 Experimental Research Looks at cause-and-effect relationshipsHighly controlled, objective, systematic studiesInvolves the measurement of independent and dependent variables
8 Experimental Research (cont’d) Main characteristics:Controlled manipulation of at least one independent variableUses experimental and control groupsRandom assignment of the sample to the experimental and control groups
9 Concepts Relevant to Quantitative Research Basic researchApplied researchRigorControlExtraneous variablesSampling
10 Basic Research Research for the sake of research Research to find out the truthInvestigating “what is”
11 Applied Research Attempts to solve real problems in clinical practice Concerns what effects the intervention may have on patientsApplies findings in the real world on real patients
12 Rigor in Quantitative Research Striving for excellence in research and adherence to detailPrecise measurement tools, a representative sample, and a tightly controlled study designLogical reasoning is essential.Precision, accuracy, detail, and order required
13 Control in Quantitative Research Rules are followed to decrease the possibility of error, and are the design of the study.Different levels of control depending on studyQuasi-experimental studies partially controlled regarding selection of subjectsExperimental studies highly controlled because of precision of sample selection
14 Extraneous Variables in Quantitative Research These occur in all research studies.They may interfere with the hypothesized relationships between variables.The influence of extraneous variables can be decreased through sample selection and the use of defined research settings.
15 Sampling in Quantitative Research Process of selecting subjects who are representative of the populationRandom samplingEach member has an equal chance of being selected.Has the most controlConvenience samplingWhoever is available
16 Settings in Quantitative Research The location where studies take placeMust be defined in advanceInvolved in the rigor and control of the studyTypes of research settings:Natural or field settingsPartially controlled settingsHighly controlled or laboratory settings
17 Control in Quantitative Research Type ofQuantitative ResearchResearcherControlResearchSettingDescriptiveUncontrolledNatural or partiallycontrolledCorrelationalUncontrolled or partially controlledNatural or partially controlledQuasi-experimentalPartially controlledExperimentalHighly controlledLaboratory
18 Problem-Solving Process Data collectionProblem definitionPlanSetting goalsIdentifying solutionsImplementationEvaluation and revision
19 Steps of the Quantitative Research Process Research problem and purposeLiterature reviewStudy frameworkObjectives, questions, or hypothesesStudy variables
20 Steps of the Quantitative Research Process (cont’d) AssumptionsLimitationsMethodologicalTheoreticalResearch designPopulation and sampleMethods of measurement
21 Steps of the Quantitative Research Process (cont’d) Data collection and analysisResearch outcomesCommunication of findings
22 Research Problem and Purpose Research problem is an area of concern needing research for nursing practice.The problem identifies, describes, or predicts the research situation.Research purpose comes from the problem and identifies the specific goal or aim of the study.The purpose includes variables, population, and setting for the study.
23 Literature ReviewCollecting pertinent literature to give in-depth knowledge about the problemUnderstanding what knowledge exists to make changes in practice
24 Study FrameworkFramework is the abstract, theoretical basis for a study that enables the researcher to link the findings to nursing’s body of knowledge.Theory is an integrated set of defined concepts and relational statements that present a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict, or control phenomena.
25 Research Objectives, Questions, and Hypotheses All identify relationship between variables and indicate population to be studiedNarrower in focus than the purpose and often specify only one or two research variables
26 Study VariablesVariables are concepts that are measured, manipulated, or controlled in a study.Concrete variables: temperature, weightAbstract variables: creativity, empathyConceptual definition: gives meaning to a conceptOperational definition: variable can be measured using this description
27 Example of Definitions: Physical Symptoms Conceptual definitionPhysical symptoms are “behavioral manifestations that result directly from the traumagenic dynamics of child sexual abuse.”(Hulme & Grove, 1994, p. 522)Operational definitionASI questionnaire was used to measure physical symptoms
28 Assumptions Statements are taken for granted or are considered true. Assumptions are often unrecognized in thinking and behavior.Sources of assumptions are universally accepted truths.They are often embedded in the philosophical base of the study’s framework.
29 LimitationsRestrictions in a study that may decrease the credibility and generalizability of the findingsTheoretical limitationsRestrict the generalization of the findingsReflected in the framework and definitionsMethodological limitationsRestrict the population to which the findings can be generalizedMay result from an unrepresentative sample or weak design
30 Research Design Blueprint for conducting the study Maximizes control over factors that could interfere with the study’s desired outcomeDirects the selection of the population, sampling, methods of measure, plans for data collection, and analysis
31 Population and Sample Population Sample All elements that meet certain criteria for inclusion in studyExample: all women students in higher educationSampleA subset of the population that is selected for studyExample: women students in three state universities in the Southwest(Hulme & Grove, 1994)
32 Methods of Measurement Assigning numbers to objectsApplication of rules to development of a measurement device or instrumentData are gathered at the nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio level of measurement.Must examine reliability and validity of measurement toolReliability: consistency of the toolValidity: does it measure what it is supposed to measure?
33 Data CollectionPrecise, systematic gathering of information for the studyConsent must be obtained from the sample.Researchers use observation, interviews, questionnaires, or scales to gather information.Described under the “procedures” section of a research article
34 Data Analysis Reduce, organize, and give meaning to data Descriptive and inferential analysis of data
35 Results Descriptions of findings after data were analyzed Usually organized by research objectives, questions, or hypotheses
36 Research Outcomes Interprets data findings in meaningful manner Involves forming conclusions and considering implications for nursingSuggests future studiesGeneralizes the findings
37 Research Reports and Communication of Findings Summarizes major elements of a study and identifies contributions of study to nursing knowledgePresented at professional meetings and conferences and published in journals and books
38 Content of Research Reports Abstract—summary of study in 100 to 250 wordsIntroduction—problem, purpose, literature, framework, and hypothesisMethods—design, sample, setting, toolResults—data analysis proceduresDiscussion—findings, conclusions, implicationsReference list—all sources cited
39 Skimming a Research Report Quickly review source for broad overview.Read title, author’s name, abstract, introduction, and discussion.Examine conclusions and implications.Give preliminary judgment of study.
40 Comprehending a Research Report Type of study conducted—highlight key pointsKnowledge available on topicExpertise of researcherReplication versus original researchFunding resources of researcherAmount of fundingSources of funding
41 Analyzing a Research Report Examine parts of report in depth for accuracy, completeness, uniqueness of information, and organization.Was research process logically presented?Examine discussion section for critical arguments.
42 Initial Research Report Critique What type of study was conducted?What was the setting for the study?Were steps for the research process clearly identified?Were any of steps missing?Did the steps logically link together?