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Non-Vascular Plants.

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Presentation on theme: "Non-Vascular Plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Non-Vascular Plants

2 Evolution of Land Plants
Land plants evolved from green algae The green algae called charophyceans are the closest relatives of land plants Comparisons of both nuclear and chloroplast genes Point to charophyceans as the closest living relatives of land plants Chara, a pond organism (a) 10 mm Coleochaete orbicularis, a disk- shaped charophycean (LM) (b) 40 µm

3 Origin and Diversification of Plants
Fossil evidence indicates that plants were on land at least 475 million years ago Whatever the age of the first land plants those ancestral species gave rise to a vast diversity of modern plants

4 Seedless vascular plants
Plant Evolution Bryophytes (nonvascular plants) Seedless vascular plants Seed plants Vascular plants Land plants Origin of seed plants (about 360 mya) Origin of vascular plants (about 420 mya) Origin of land plants (about 475 mya) Ancestral green alga Charophyceans Liverworts Hornworts Mosses Lycophytes(club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts) Pterophyte (ferns, horsetails, whisk fern) Gymnosperms Angiosperms

5 Bryophytes Life cycles of mosses and other bryophytes are dominated by the gametophyte stage Bryophytes are represented today by three phyla of small herbaceous (nonwoody) plants Liverworts, phylum Hepatophyta Hornworts, phylum Anthocerophyta Mosses, phylum Bryophyta

6 Bryophytes Nonvascular (pass water cell-to-cell)
Seedless (reproduce by spores) Low growing Phylum Bryophyta (also includes liverworts & hornworts) Grow on moist brick walls, in sidewalks, as thick mats on forest floors, and on the shaded side of trees

7 Bryophytes Can survive periodic dry spells, reviving when water becomes available Require water for fertilization so sperm can swim to egg Rhizoids (root like structures) anchor mosses Have waxy covering called cuticle on aerial parts to prevent desiccation

8 Gametophyte generation produces gametes (eggs & Sperm)
Dominant form of a moss is a clump of leafy green gametophytes  (photosynthetic)  Moss alternates between a haploid (1n) gametophyte and diploid (2n) sporophyte Gametophyte generation produces gametes (eggs & Sperm) Sporophyte generation forms at the top of the gametophytes and produces spores  Stalk-like sporophytes lack chlorophyll Capsule at the top of the sporophyte forms haploid (1n) spores  a Diploid (2n) sporophyte stage (contains two sets of chromosomes, one from male and one from female) and a Haploid (1n) gametophyte stage (contains one set of chromosomes) This type of life cycle is called Alternation of Generations

9 Sexual reproduction in Moss:
Moss produce 2 kinds of jacketed gametes --- eggs & sperm Egg producing organ is called the archegonium Eggs are larger and nonmotile Sperm producing organ is called the antheridium Sperm are smaller, flagellated cells Antheridia & archegonia are both part of the gametophyte plant Fertilization can occur only during or soon after RAIN  when the gametophyte is covered with Water Sperm swim to the egg by following a trail of chemicals released by the egg in the water Fertilization produces a zygote that becomes a sporophyte Mature sporophytes produce homosporous spores (all the same type) Mature capsules open & release spores spread by wind Spores landing on moist places germinate into protonema that become new gametophytes

10 Only the zygote is 2n

11 Liverworts Have no true roots or shoots Non- vascular
Require water to reproduce Have no or very little leaf structure Cannot live in sporophyte form

12 Hornworts Free-floating aquatic plant, or land plant
No vascular tissue No true leaves or roots Can live in both gametophyte and sporophyte forms

13 Mosses Land plant Most have no vascular tissue
Majority of life spent in gametophyte stage Need water to breed No leaves or roots Sporophytes are capsules on stalks

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