2 1-Vascular Plant Characteristics For plants to survive on land, they must have ways to obtain water and other materials from their surroundings.They must be able to retain water, transport materials throughout the plant, support their bodies, and reproduce successfully.
3 Most plants live on land. Most plants have a waxy waterproof layer covering their leaves called a cuticle.The cuticle helps keep water inside the plant cell rather than let it evaporate into the air.
4 Some plants have vascular tissue, an internal system of tubelike structures through which food and water move inside the plant.The vascular tissue also strengthens and supports the large bodies of plants.
5 All plants undergo sexual reproduction that involves fertilization. Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell unites with an egg cell.The fertilized egg is called a zygote.
6 Plants have complex life cycles that are made up of 2 different stages. In one stage, the sporophyte, the plant produces spores, which grow into new organisms.The spore develops into the second stage, the gametophyte.
7 The gametophyte stage produces gametes. Gametes are sperm cells and egg cells.Vocabulary#1-7Cuticle, vascular tissue, fertilizationzygote, sporophyte, gametophyte, gamete
8 Section 2 notes-Moss/Nonvascular Mosses are a type of nonvascular plant.Some other nonvascular plants are liverworts and hornwarts.All nonvascular plants are low-growing plants that lack vascular tissue.
9 These small low-growing plants have only their rigid cell walls for support. They do not have complex systems to transport water, nutrients, and food through their bodies.Nonvascular plants can only pass these materials from one cell to the next.
10 Nonvascular plants must live in places with enough moisture for them to survive and reproduce. The familiar green, fuzzy part of the moss is the gametophyte.The sporophyte generation grows out of the gametophyte.
11 The sporophyte has a slender stalk with a capsule at the end. The capsule contains spores.Thin rootlike structures called rhizoids anchor the moss and absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
12 Sphagnum moss is a type of moss that grows in a wetland called a bog. The bog water is so acidic that the plants do not decompose when they die, instead they pile up at the bottom.Over time, the mosses become compressed into layers and form peat.
13 Peat is used as a fuel to heat homes and cook food in Europe and Asia. Vocabulary #8-11Nonvascular plant, rhizoid, bog, peat
14 Section 3 notes-Ferns/Seedless Vascular Ferns and their relatives share 2 major characteristics.They have vascular tissue and use spores to reproduce.Vascular plants are much more suited to life on land than mosses.
15 Ferns, club mosses, and horsetails need to grow in moist surroundings because they produce spores. These spores grow into gametophytes, which then produce egg cells and sperm cells, they need water for fertilization to occur.
16 The leaves of ferns are called fronds. The frond has the sporophyte stage, tiny spore cases on the underside of the mature leaf.The spores will develop into a tiny gametophyte if it lands on moist, shaded soil.
17 The developing uncurled leaves of the fern are called fiddleheads. There are few club mosses and horsetails today.They have true leaves, like the ferns, and a similar life cycle.
18 The ferns, club mosses and horsetails are all considered seedless vascular plants because they produce spores to reproduce, not seeds.Vocabulary #12,13Frond,fiddlehead
19 4-Seed Plants All seed plants share 2 characteristics. They have vascular tissue and use seeds to reproduce.They all have body plans that include leaves, stems, and roots.
20 Water, food, and nutrients are transported throughout the plant’s vascular tissue. Phloem- vascular tissue through which food moves.When food is made in the leaves, it enters the phloem and travels to the stems and roots.
21 Xylem-water and nutrients travel in this vascular tissue from the soil. Seeds are structures that contain a young plant inside a protective covering.Seeds have 3 parts- embryo, stored food, seed coat
22 The young plant that develops from the zygote, or fertilized egg, is called the embryo and has the beginnings of roots, stems and leavesin some plants food is stored inside 1 or 2 seed leaves, called cotyledon.
23 The outer covering of a seed is called the seed coat. Germination is the early growth stage of the embryo.Germination begins when the seed absorbs water from the environmentGermination continues as the embryo uses its stored food to begin to grow.
24 stoma open and close to control when gases enter and leave the leaf. The process by which water evaporates from the stomata in a plant’s leaves is called transpiration.
25 The stem carries substances between the plant’s roots and leaves. The stem also provides support for the plant and holds up the leaves so they are exposed to the sun.
26 Inside the stem is a layer of cells called the cambium. The cells of the cambium divide to produce new phloem and xylem and to increase the stem’s width.
27 Roots anchor a plant in the ground and absorb water and nutrients from the soil. The tip of the root is rounded and is covered by a root cap.The root cap protects the root from injury from rocks as the root grows through the soil.
29 5-Gymnosperm/Angiosperms A gymnosperm is a seed plant that produces naked seeds, seeds that have no protective covering.All gymnosperms produce naked seeds.Many gymnosperms have needlelike or scalelike leaves and deep-growing root systems.
30 Gymnosperms are classified into 4 groups-cycads, ginkgo, gametophytes, conifers. Most reproduce with cones.Two types of cones: male and femalemale cones produce tiny grains of pollen which contain microscopic cells that later become sperm cells.
31 Female cones contain at least 1 ovule at the base of each scale, it contains an ed cell. After being fertilized, the ovule develops into a seed.The cone closes and seals in pollen.To reproduce pollen falls from a male cone onto a female cone.
32 In time a sperms cell and egg cell join together in an ovule on the female cone. The transfer of pollen from a male to a female cone or structure is called pollination.Conifers produce many useful products like paper and the lumber to build homes.
33 The rayon fibers in clothes are also from conifers. Conifers are grown in large forests.Clear cutting is one method to obtain lumber, when all the trees in a large area of forest are cut down.
34 This practice can destroy animals’ homes and cause the soil to be washed away by rains.
35 AngiospermsAn angiosperm is a plant that produces seeds that are enclosed in a fruit.Seeds develop in a protective structure called an ovary.
36 The ovary is located within an angiosperm’s flower. 2 characteristics that all angiosperms share: all produce flowers and fruits.Not all flowers appear the same.Some flowers do not have petals, colorful structures that you see when flowers open.
37 The flower bud is enclosed by leaflike structures called sepals that protect the flower. Within the petals are the male and female reproductive parts.Thin stalks topped by small knobs inside the flower are stamen, this is the male part.The stalk is called the filament.
38 The knob at the end of the filament is the anther, this is where the pollen is produced. The pistil is the female part, usually found in the center of the flower.The sticky tip of the pistil is called the stigma.
39 A slender tube down the center of the pistil is called the style, connecting the stigma to the ovary.The ovary contains 1 or more ovules.In reproduction pollen falls on a stigma, over time the sperm and egg cell join together in the ovule.
40 The zygote develops into the embryo part of the seed. As the seed develops, the ovary changes and eventually becomes a fruit, a ripened ovary.Angiosperms divide into 2 groups: monocots and dicots
41 scattered bundles in veins flower parts in threes Monocots1 seed leaf,cotyledonparallel veinsscattered bundles in veinsflower parts in threesgrasses, corn, wheat,rice, lilies, tulips
42 2 seed leaves, cotyledons branching veins circle of veins Dicots2 seed leaves, cotyledonsbranching veinscircle of veinsflower parts in fours or fivesroses, violets, dandelions
44 Section 6- Plant GrowthA plant’s growth response toward or away from a stimulus is called a tropism.Touch, light, gravity are important stimuli to which plants respond.
45 Hormones produced by a plant are chemicals that affect how the plant grows and develops. Plant hormones control tropisms; germination; forming flowers, stems, and leaves; shedding of leaves; development of and ripening of fruit.
46 Auxin is an important plant hormone that speeds up the rate at which a plant’s cells grow. Auxin controls a plant’s response to light by making some cells grow faster than others so the plant bends toward the light.
47 Flowering plants that flower and die in the same year are called annuals. Ex: marigolds, petunias, pansies, wheat, tomatoes, cucumbers.Flowering plants that live 2 years are biennials.Ex: parsley, celery
48 plants that live for more than 2 years are perennials. Ex: oak trees and honeysuckleVocabulary #36-40Tropism, auxin, annual, biennial, perennials