 # State Assessment Review Physical Science S.HS.2B.3.5.

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State Assessment Review Physical Science S.HS.2B.3.5

subatomic particles – the three main particles that exist in an atom (proton, neutron, and electron) subatomic particles – the three main particles that exist in an atom (proton, neutron, and electron) proton – a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and is found in the nucleus of an atom proton – a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and is found in the nucleus of an atom electron – a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is located outside the nucleus in the electron cloud, much smaller than the proton and neutron electron – a subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is located outside the nucleus in the electron cloud, much smaller than the proton and neutron

Two charged particles exert a force on one another. These forces become stronger with an increased magnitude of charge and are decreased when the distance between the charges becomes greater. Two charged particles exert a force on one another. These forces become stronger with an increased magnitude of charge and are decreased when the distance between the charges becomes greater. Opposite charges attract each other. Opposite charges attract each other. Like charges repel each other. Like charges repel each other.

When charged particles accelerate, a magnetic field is produced. When charged particles accelerate, a magnetic field is produced. In the presence of a magnetic field, an electric current can be produced (moving charged particles). In the presence of a magnetic field, an electric current can be produced (moving charged particles). Every electron is moving around the nucleus of an atom, so every electron is a tiny magnet. Every electron is moving around the nucleus of an atom, so every electron is a tiny magnet. Not all objects are magnetic because the electrons are spinning in different directions and their magnetic fields cancel each other out. Not all objects are magnetic because the electrons are spinning in different directions and their magnetic fields cancel each other out.

The electric field given off by the charged particle combined with the magnetic field given off by its motion produces an electromagnetic wave. The electric field given off by the charged particle combined with the magnetic field given off by its motion produces an electromagnetic wave. electromagnetic wave – a transverse wave composed of alternating electric and magnetic fields arranged in order of their wavelength and frequency electromagnetic wave – a transverse wave composed of alternating electric and magnetic fields arranged in order of their wavelength and frequency

Electromagnetic waves include: Electromagnetic waves include: (low frequency, high wavelength) Radio Waves – Microwaves – Infrared Waves (Heat) – Visible Light (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet) – Ultraviolet Rays – X Rays – Gamma Rays (high frequency, low wavelength) (low frequency, high wavelength) Radio Waves – Microwaves – Infrared Waves (Heat) – Visible Light (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet) – Ultraviolet Rays – X Rays – Gamma Rays (high frequency, low wavelength) The energy of electromagnetic waves are carried in packets which have a magnitude that is inversely proportional to the wavelength. The energy of electromagnetic waves are carried in packets which have a magnitude that is inversely proportional to the wavelength.

Questions 1. Stars emit wave energy as electromagnetic radiation. Which statement best explains the origin of these waves? 1. Stars emit wave energy as electromagnetic radiation. Which statement best explains the origin of these waves? A. Accelerated electrons give off energy of various wavelengths. A. Accelerated electrons give off energy of various wavelengths. B. Electrons that maintain constant kinetic energy give off waves with constant energy. B. Electrons that maintain constant kinetic energy give off waves with constant energy. C. Accelerated neutrons give off energy at constant wavelengths. C. Accelerated neutrons give off energy at constant wavelengths. D. Neutrons that maintain maximum kinetic energy give off waves with maximum wavelengths. D. Neutrons that maintain maximum kinetic energy give off waves with maximum wavelengths.

Questions 1. Stars emit wave energy as electromagnetic radiation. Which statement best explains the origin of these waves? 1. Stars emit wave energy as electromagnetic radiation. Which statement best explains the origin of these waves? A. Accelerated electrons give off energy of various wavelengths. – correct answer A. Accelerated electrons give off energy of various wavelengths. – correct answer B. Electrons that maintain constant kinetic energy give off waves with constant energy. B. Electrons that maintain constant kinetic energy give off waves with constant energy. C. Accelerated neutrons give off energy at constant wavelengths. C. Accelerated neutrons give off energy at constant wavelengths. D. Neutrons that maintain maximum kinetic energy give off waves with maximum wavelengths. D. Neutrons that maintain maximum kinetic energy give off waves with maximum wavelengths.

Questions 2. An electron will attract 2. An electron will attract A. a proton. A. a proton. B. a neutron. B. a neutron. C. another electron. C. another electron. D. An electron does not attract any other subatomic particles. D. An electron does not attract any other subatomic particles.

Questions 2. An electron will attract 2. An electron will attract A. a proton. A. a proton. B. a neutron. B. a neutron. C. another electron. – correct answer C. another electron. – correct answer D. An electron does not attract any other subatomic particles. D. An electron does not attract any other subatomic particles.

Questions 3. Which of the following electromagnetic waves carries the most energy? 3. Which of the following electromagnetic waves carries the most energy? A. radio waves A. radio waves B. infrared waves B. infrared waves C. ultraviolet waves C. ultraviolet waves D. X-rays D. X-rays

Questions 3. Which of the following electromagnetic waves carries the most energy? 3. Which of the following electromagnetic waves carries the most energy? A. radio waves A. radio waves B. infrared waves B. infrared waves C. ultraviolet waves C. ultraviolet waves D. X-rays – correct answer D. X-rays – correct answer

Questions 4. What is the source of a magnetic field? 4. What is the source of a magnetic field? A. moving neutrons A. moving neutrons B. stationary protons B. stationary protons C. moving electrons C. moving electrons D. stationary neutrons D. stationary neutrons

Questions 4. What is the source of a magnetic field? 4. What is the source of a magnetic field? A. moving neutrons A. moving neutrons B. stationary protons B. stationary protons C. moving electrons – correct answer C. moving electrons – correct answer D. stationary neutrons D. stationary neutrons