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Pre-test Study Guide Thermodynamics Laws Q=m C ∆T Q = m L P V = n R T ∆U = Q – W Effic. = T h -T c /T c Other Laws W = F * d P = W / t P = F / A Vocabulary and Concepts Kinetic Theory of Matter Thermal Energy Heat Flow (conduction, radiation, convection) Internal Energy States of matter (solid, liquid, gas) Phase change (melting, vaporizing, condensing, etc.) Phase change graph Temperature and equilibrium Temperature scales (Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit) Temperature conversions Specific Heat Capacity Latent Heat Capacity Ideal Gas Laws Isobaric, Isothermal, Isovolumetric, Adiabatic Processes Heat Engines Piston, cylinder, hot and cold reservoirs, exhaust Carnot Efficiency Actual Efficiency

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Thermodynamics Review MARCH 5 TH, 2012

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16) Using the information above, create an accurate phase change graph for Ethanol. 17) A mixture of 50g of ethanol and 50g of water start at 20*C and are heated until they’re at 120*C. How much energy is consumed in this process? Material Freezing Point Boiling Point Solid Specific Heat Capacity (C s ) Liquid Specific Heat Capacity (C s ) Gas Specific Heat Capacity (C s ) Latent Heat of Fusion (Lf) Latent Heat of Vaporization (Lv) Water273*K373*K2.11 J/g *K4.18 J/g *K2.08 J/g*K334 J/g2260 J/g Ammonia195 *K240 *K? (use 4.6)4.6 J/g *K2.17 J/g *K339 J/g1369 J/g Ethanol159*K352 *C2.41 J/g *K2.43 J/g *K1.70 J/g * K109 J/g838 J/g

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18) A gas undergoes isobaric compression. The temperature goes from 200*K to 600*K during the process. How much of its original volume does the gas now occupy? 19) An engine has a piston area of 0.1 m2 and a piston volume of 0.02 m3. It is pushed forwards at a pressure of 50,000 Pa and then has to overcome a pressure of 10,000 Pa as it returns back to its original position. How much net work is done per cycle? If it cycles 120 times per minute, how much power does it generate? 20) An engine has a hot reservoir at a temperature of 100*C and a cold reservoir of 20*C. What is the theoretical maximum (Carnot) efficiency it can achieve? If it does 100J of work for every 500J of fuel, what is its actual efficiency?

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