2 The Founding of the Han Dynasty Began after the death of Qin Shi HuangdiCivil war between forces of Xiang Yu and Liu BangAfter a victory in 202 B.C. Liu Bang declared himself first emperor of the Han dynasty
4 Han Dynasty Ruled for 400 years Divided into 2 parts Former Han – two centuries till 9 A.D.Later Han – another two centuries(a brief period between when Han were out of power)
5 After a short civil war, a new dynasty, called Han (206 BC to 220 AD), emerged with its capital at Chang'an. The new empire retained much of the Qin administrative structure but retreated a bit from centralized rule by establishing vassal principalities for the sake of political convenience. The Han rulers modified some of the harsher aspects of the previous dynasty. Technological advances also marked this period with two inventions, paper and porcelain. The Han dynasty was notable for its military prowess. The empire expanded westward to modern Xinjiang Province. After 200 years, Han rule was interrupted briefly (in AD 9 to 24 by Wang Mang, a reformer), then restored for another 200 years. The Han rulers, however, were unable to adjust to what centralization had wrought: a growing population, increasing wealth and resultant financial difficulties and rivalries, and ever-more complex political institutions. Riddled with corruption characteristic of the dynastic cycle, by AD 220, the Han Empire collapsed.
6 Liu Bang forms a Centralized Government Destroys rival’s power & wins popular supportEstablished a top-down ruleAutocratic authorityLowered taxesTempered harsh punishments
7 Centralized Government When a central authority controls the running of a state.
8 Keeps Control of the Throne Empress LuKeeps Control of the ThroneNames one infant after another as emperor and acted as regent for each.
9 WudiExpanded Chinese Empire & Appointed qualified people to government jobsConquered lands.Made allies of enemies.Tests for civil service workers.
10 China under the Han emperor Wudi (c China under the Han emperor Wudi (c. 100 bc) and (inset) at the end of the Chunqiu (Spring and Autumn) period (c. 500 bc).
11 Civil ServiceGovernment jobs that civilians obtained by taking examinations.The Chinese civil service established a top-down chain of command with the emperor at the top.
12 Invention of Paper Availability of books increased Education spreads Expands government as records could be stored and read
13 AD 105 is often cited as the year in which papermaking was invented AD 105 is often cited as the year in which papermaking was invented. In that year, historical records show that the invention of paper was reported to the Chinese Emperor by Ts'ai Lun, an official of the Imperial Court. Recent archaeological investigations, however, place the actual invention of papermaking some 200 years eariler. Ancient paper pieces from the Xuanquanzhi ruins of Dunhuang in China's northwest Gansu province apparently were made during the period of Emperor Wu who reigned between 140 BC and 86 BC.
15 Collared HarnessHorses can now carry heavier loads.
16 Twin-blade plowMore efficient, it increased the amount of seed one person could plant.
17 Silk production techniques kept secret Creates a world-wide demand for silk.Expands Chinese commerce to Rome.
18 MonopolyThe Chinese government established a monopoly control of the silk market, alcohol, forging of iron, and the minting of coins.A monopoly exists when there is only one supplier of a good or service. The supplier is free to set the price for the good or service.
19 Territorial Expansion Government wants to unify the empire. It promotes:Intermarriage between Chinese and other nationalities.Schools for conquered people.Appoints locals to government posts.
20 Assimilation Han rulers tried to assimilate conquered peoples. Assimilation is the process by which conquered people are made more Chinese.
21 Gap Between Rich and Poor Increases Political instability increasesPoor were taxed heavily on very small plots of land if could not pay tax, it would result in loss of landRich inherit land and were not taxedEconomic weaknesses and imbalance topples the empire
22 Wang Mang Overthrows Han Dynasty Restored order and brought the country under control.Minted new moneyEstablished public granariesRedistribution of land to the poor