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World War I “The Great War”.

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Presentation on theme: "World War I “The Great War”."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War I “The Great War”

2 The Domino Effect June 28, 1914 – Archduke Franz Ferdinand & wife Sophie killed in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip (a Bosnian nationalist) July 28,1914 – Austria-Hungary, convinced Serbia was behind the assassination, declares war on Serbia July 29, 1914 – Russia, Serbia’s protector, begins mobilization Germany, A-H’s main ally, demands that Russia stop mobilizing – Russia refuses

3 Germany begins mobilizing, as does France, Russia’s ally
August 1, 1914 – Germany declares war on Russia France declares war on Germany and A-H Germany begins executing the “Schlieffen plan”, invading Belgium Attack France first (west), the Russia (east) August 4, 1914 – Great Britain, Belgium’s protector, declares war on Germany

4 America’s Initial Response
Most wanted to stay neutral Protect trade/investments – didn’t want to make enemies and risk losing money Wilson promised to keep U.S. out of the war 1st & 2nd generation immigrants more personally connected than others Because of increasing press coverage and their dislike of Germany’s autocratic system, most Americans sided with Allies

5 Wilson declared the U.S. as “neutral” on August 4, 1914
Public was split: Preparedness movement – more popular; wanted to be ready in case it became necessary to enter the war; organized National Security League to gain support Peace movement – less popular; Midwest Progressives, social reformers, women; founded American Union Against Militarism

6 Leading to U.S. Involvement
America had more economic ties to the Allies As the war progressed, Britain & France were buying more & more U.S. goods (war supplies) Americans disliked German & A-H autocratic rule Anti-Germany propaganda By 1917, the U.S. began preparing to join the war for 2 major reasons: 1) to make sure the Allies repaid their debt 2) to prevent German acts of aggression, esp. threats to U.S. shipping

7 Leading to U.S. Involvement
German submarines, called U-boats, were able to go anywhere in the ocean undetected, enabling them to attack ships unexpectedly Began firing on any ship suspected of carrying weapons/aiding British forces Americans viewed this new tactic as uncivilized U.S. passenger and commercial ships at risk

8 The Breaking Point On May 7th, 1915, a U-boat sank the Lusitania (a British passenger ship), which had 1,200 passengers on board (128 Americans) Wilson demanded Germany stop its “unethical warfare”  Germany promised to stop sinking passenger ships without warning BUT Germany continued firing on ships, including the Sussex (a French passenger ship) on March 24th, 1916

9 Once again, Wilson responded, threatening to cut diplomatic ties with Germany if the attacks continued Germany signed the “Sussex Pledge,” again promising not to attack ships without warning (1916) By this point, neutrality was fading, the preparedness movement was gaining support, and the U.S. was loaning money to the Allies

10 Feb. 3rd, 1917 – Wilson breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany
February – March 1917, Germany had resumed its unrestricted warfare and thus violated the Sussex Pledge Feb. 3rd, 1917 – Wilson breaks off diplomatic relations with Germany The “Zimmerman note” increased the level of concern among Americans British intercepted a telegram sent from Germany to Mexico Arthur Zimmerman (German foreign secretary) “invited” Mexico to join the Central Powers if America entered the war, promising them U.S. territory

11 The U.S. Declares War President Wilson proposed a resolution for war to Congress First passed in the Senate (82-6), then in the House (373-50) Wilson signed the war resolution on April 6, 1917

12 End of the War Jan. 18, 1918: Wilson proposes his Fourteen Points:
(First 5 were ways to prevent another war) No secret treaties among nations Freedom of the seas for all Tariffs lowered or abolished to encourage trade Disarmament “to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety” Colonial policies that consider the needs of the colonial & native people

13 6-13. Self-determination of national boundaries – groups could decide to form their own nation or belong to another (e.g. Bosnia) Creation of the League of Nations (international diplomatic organization) June 28, 1919: Treaty of Versailles is signed

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