Presentation on theme: "Spatial Models of Urban Land Use (Ch. 13)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Spatial Models of Urban Land Use (Ch. 13) DISCUSSION:Which one of these models best reflects the land use patterns where you live?Concentric – a tree with ringsSector – a pieMultiple nuclei – a chocolate chip cookie1
2 Analyzing Urban Models Concentric Zone Benefits (pros)Drawbacks (cons)
3 Previous groups move outward to higher-income areas (suburbs) Concentric Zone Model1920s (Burgess) – land-use pattern follows concentric rings around city center (CBD)Newest settlers in city use older housing near city center (migrants to industrial jobs)Previous groups move outward to higher-income areas (suburbs)DISCUSSION:* What evidence do you see for the concept of invasion-and-succession in your city?* Are there homes that were once the best available that are now lived in by individuals of lesser economic status?3
4 Previous groups move outward to higher-income areas (suburbs) Concentric Zone ModelInvasion and Succession: Process by which new immigrants to a city move to and dominate or take over areas or neighborhoods occupied by older immigrant groups.Newest settlers in city use older housing near city center (migrants to industrial jobs)Previous groups move outward to higher-income areas (suburbs)DISCUSSION:* What evidence do you see for the concept of invasion-and-succession in your city?* Are there homes that were once the best available that are now lived in by individuals of lesser economic status?4
5 Based on class and the bid-rent curve. Concentric Zone ModelBased on class and the bid-rent curve.
7 Sector Model1939 (Hoyt) - Land use = pie-shaped wedges radiating from CBDHigh-income areas along fashionable boulevards, waterfronts, or high groundIndustry along river or railsLow-income near industryMiddle-income between low and high sectorsDISCUSSION:* How would you design the Sector Model to reflect your town or city's layout?7
8 Hoyt Sector ModelBased on class. It describes social structure based on transportation systems rather than distance from the CBD.
9 Analyzing Urban Models Sector Model Benefits (pros)Drawbacks (cons)
10 Multiple-Nuclei Model Post WW2 - Early days of suburbanizationDowntown CBD not only core of business land useOther nuclei develop - special retail districts, office parks, light manufacturing in cityMetro areas develop “suburban downtowns” (called “edge cities”)- Tech CenterDISCUSSION:* What areas are there other than the CBD which have a heavy concentration of non-residential land uses in this model?* Where are they located?* How does the Urban Realms concept differ from the original Multiple Nuclei Model?10
12 Industrial ParksMuch of the growth in industry since WWII has taken place in “Industrial Parks”Definition: Industrial Park – A planned development designed to insure compatibility between industrial operations within and between the industrial tenants and the surrounding communityAttempt to change image of industrial land uses: usually park or campus-like character with landscaped buffer zones
13 Industrial Park Strategies Zoning, utilities, and sometimes generic rental space providedEarliest parks established by railroads in Chicago1899 Clearing Industrial District1905 Central Manufacturing DistrictVery slow growth of the concept until after WWIIparks in all of USAparksBy 1980, more than 2,500Most all parks are outside American Manufacturing BeltCalifornia, Texas, Florida, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have the most
14 4 Main Types of Parks.. Traditional Park Focus on light manufacturing, assembly, distribution, warehousing – not on heavy manufacturingExample: Great Southwest Industrial Park in the Dallas – Ft. Worth “Metroplex”Easy highway and air access (fly-in concept!)Plentiful flat landAverage firm is very small50% of all tenant firms have less than 10 emps75% have less than 50 emps
15 4 Main Types of Parks.. Research Park These have mostly flopped! One of the successful ones: Research Triangle Park in N.C.Amenities important (Natural and Cultural)Draw from academic communityFederal Government helped by locating research operations of several agencies here
16 4 Main Types of Parks Science or Technology Park Business Park Hybrid TypePartly a Research Park-- but not so restrictive; warehousing, distribution, light manufacturing, assemblyEspecially important in “High Tech” industries: Electronics, Aerospace, Optics, etc.Boston region:Silicon (Santa Clara) Valley in CaliforniaBusiness ParkCombo of Industrial and Office Park
18 Problems with all these models: Too simpleDo not take into account modern transportation corridors.Availability of cars not considered.Outer cities became independent and created suburban downtowns.Creation of edge cities loosen ties to central city.American suburbs surpassed central cities in total employment by 1973.
19 More problems…Urban patterns are shaped by an economic trade-off between the desire to live in a suburban neighborhood appropriate to ones economic status and the need to live relatively close to the CBD for employment opportunities.Assume only one person in the family is a wage worker. Ignore dual income families and households headed by single women who different considerations (childcare).All created by men who shared assumptions about how cities operate – thus presented a partial view of urban life.
20 Urban sprawl – contemporary problem Low-density “leapfrog” developments beyond urban edgeLack of coordinated planning between jurisdictionsConsequence of car-dependent urban growthDISCUSSION:* Would you prefer to live in the city center or in one of these houses facing the open prairie? Why?20
21 Analyzing Urban Models Concentric Zone Benefits (pros)Reflects historical movementPattern can still be seen today.All cities have a CBDSimilar to von Thunen.
22 Analyzing Urban Models Concentric Zone Drawbacks (cons)Based on Chicago of 1900.Reflects perception of US cities but not the reality.Does not exist in its pure form the US.Upper and Middle classes are moving back into urban centerToo simple.Over emphasized residential patterns, and does not give credit other land uses.Assumes there is a strong central city.Urban growth and development proceeds outward from a single central core.
23 Analyzing Urban Models Sector Model Benefits (pros)Patterns still seen today.More realistic.Can show ethnic variations.
24 Analyzing Urban Models Sector Model Drawbacks (cons)Does not reflect modern cities.Too simple.Areas around highways tend to be low rent districts.Assumes there is a strong central city.Urban growth and development proceeds outward from a single central core.
25 Analyzing Urban Models Multiple Nuclei Benefits (pros)Takes into account varied factors of decentralization into the structure of the North America city.Encompasses a larger spectrum of economic and social factors.Takes ‘car’ into account.
26 Analyzing Urban Models Multiple Nuclei Drawbacks (cons)Too simpleEqual weight given to all nodes.
27 Contemporary urban trends “New Urbanism”DISCUSSION:* What are the advantages of "new urbanism"?* What are the drawbacks to "new urbanism"?Town Center, Highlands Ranch27
28 Gentrification Definition Words associated w/ but not used in the definitionDefinitionGentrificationA non-example w/ explanationAn example w/ explanation
29 Gentrification and Downtown Revitalization Contemporary urban trendsGentrification and Downtown Revitalization