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► In 1829, English inventor George Stephenson ran a steam-powered locomotive called “the Rocket” at an astounding speed of 28 miles per hour. The first.

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Presentation on theme: "► In 1829, English inventor George Stephenson ran a steam-powered locomotive called “the Rocket” at an astounding speed of 28 miles per hour. The first."— Presentation transcript:

1 ► In 1829, English inventor George Stephenson ran a steam-powered locomotive called “the Rocket” at an astounding speed of 28 miles per hour. The first railway line from Liverpool to Manchester began in 1830. Railroad companies soon began to spring up in earnest. By the middle of the nineteenth century, there were about 20,000 miles of tracks in Great Britain. ► List some of the ways that the railways affected Britain socially and economically during this period. Warm-Up: The Railway Age

2 ► The Industrial Revolution began in – a)France b)Italy c)Russia d)Great Britain TAKS Warm-Up: Industrial Revolution

3 Part 1: Industrial Revolution

4 Industrial Revolution in Great Britain ► Industrial Revolution (IR) began in the 1780’s ► Factors contributing to make Great Britain the starting place:  Agricultural practices changed  Population growth  Ready supply of capital ($$$) to invest in new machines  Natural resources were plentiful  Variety of markets (buyers)

5 Changes in Cotton Production ► Cotton goods production BEFORE IR:  Spun cotton into thread and then wove thread into cloth ► Cotton goods production AFTER IR:  “Flying Shuttle”: made production of cloth faster  “Spinning Jenny”: made production of thread faster  Water powered loom brought workers to the factories (which were powered by a water source) ► Improvements in steam engine enabled engine to drive machinery  Steam engine ran on coal not, water power; no need to build factories by water sources  1760 imported 2.5 million lbs. of raw cotton – 1840 imported 366 million lbs. of raw cotton  Cotton cloth becomes Britain’s most valuable product – sold everywhere

6 “Flying Shuttle”


8 Coal & Iron Industries ► Success of the steam engine increased the need for coal  Led to the expansion of coal production  New processes using coal led to the growth of the iron industry ► 17,000 tons of iron/yr.  70,000 tons of iron/yr. ► By 1852, they had produced almost 3 million tons of iron ► Used to build new machinery and transportation

9 Railroads ► Railroads were important to the success of the IR ► 1804: 1 st steam locomotive (pulled 10 tons & 10 people @ 5mph) ► Railroad created jobs ► Less expensive transportation led to lower-priced goods  “The Rocket:” 1 st public railway, opened in 1830, 16mph, 32 mile track  By 1850’s speeds reached 50mph

10 Lower-priced goods Less expensive transportation Larger markets; more sales More factories Invest profits in more machinery

11 New Factories ► Factory created new labor system (working 24-7 to keep up high production levels) ► Most workers were not used to the work schedule  Owners had to enforce strict rules and punishments

12 Spread of Industrialization ► Europe  Most governments encouraged the development of industrialization  Provided funds to build roads, canals, and railroads  By the 1850’s a network of railways had been setup throughout all of Europe

13 ► North America  Population growth (5 to 30 million)  Urban growth  By the 1850’s only ½ of American workers were farmers  Desperately need transportation system  Robert Fulton: 1 st paddle- wheel steamboat (the Clermont) – allowed travel along the Mississippi River Spread of Industrialization

14 Spread of Industrialization in North America ► Development of Railroad system  1830: 100 miles of track  1860: 30,000 miles of track  Railroad turned U.S. into a huge market for manufactured goods ► Development of factories  Most workers came from farms and most were women  Sometimes entire families would be employed at a factory

15 Social Impact in Europe ► Growth of Population & Cities  By 1850, the European population had almost doubled to 266 million  Why such an increase in population? ► Decline in death rates, wars and diseases ► Increase in food supply (resisted disease) ► Famine almost disappeared (1840’s – Potato Famine)


17 ► Why such an increase in the # of cities? = increase in # of factories  With the steam engine, factories didn’t need a water supply as a power source  People moved to cities to find work – using the railroad to travel to the city  Largest City: London, Great Britain (nearly 1 million)  Dangers of rapid growth: unsanitary living conditions Social Impact in Europe


19 ► Quick growth, no planning= filth, disease, few services (urban life span averages 17, rural 38)


21 The Industrial Middle Class ► Industrial Capitalism: an economic system based on industrial production  Produced a new middle class group – the industrial middle class  This group: ► Built the factories, bought the machines, and figured out where the markets were ► Qualities ranged from vision to greed

22 Industrial Working Class ► This class of people faced:  Horrible working conditions ► Mills were dirty and dangerous ► Mines always had cave-ins, explosions, and gas fumes; cramped conditions & constant dampness led to deformities and ruined lungs  Long hours (12-16 hrs./day; 6 days a week)  No security of employment  No minimum wage

23 ► Women & Child Labor made up 2/3 of the cotton industry’s workforce ► Factory Act of 1833 set minimum age at 9 ► Families were used to working together, hence, why women & children took up a large # of jobs ► In the IR, men are expected to earn the most for the family Industrial Working Class

24 Early Socialism ► Socialism: System in which society, in the form of a government, owns and controls some means of production (ex. Factories) ► Isn’t very successful

25 Assembly Line Activity ► Artisan Worker ► Color the spelling blocks with their appropriate color ► Color as many sets of blocks as possible in the available time ► As an artisan, your products are your work and your work alone! ► Factory Worker ► You will be assigned just a few colors/letters to complete in your group ► Once you have finished your part, pass the item to the next person in line ► Your goal as a team is to produce as many quality products as possible

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