2 Human Behavior, the Environment, and Health Ecosystem services:The conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life. (Daily, 1997)Services are the benefits that people receive from ecosystems. (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005)Final ecosystem services are components of nature, directly enjoyed, consumed, or used to yield human well being. (Boyd et al. 2007)
3 Ecosystem services (MEA 2005) ProvisioningGoods produced or provided by ecosystemsFoodCropsLivestockCapture FisheriesAquacultureWild FoodsFiberTimberCotton, hemp, silkWood FuelGenetic resourcesBiochemicalsFreshwaterRegulatingBenefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processesAir Quality RegulationClimate RegulationGlobal (CO2 sequestration)Regional and localErosion regulationWater purificationDisease regulationPest regulationPollinationNatural Hazard regulationCulturalNon-material benefits from ecosystemsSpiritual and Religious ValuesKnowledge SystemsEducational valuesInspirationAesthetic ValuesSocial RelationsSense of PlaceRecreation and EcotourismThese include provisioning services such as food, water, timber, and fiber; regulating services thataffect climate, floods, disease, wastes, and water quality; cultural services that provide recreational, aesthetic, and spiritual benefits; and supporting services such as soil formation, photosynthesis, and nutrient cycling. The human species, while buffered against environmental changes by culture and technology, is fundamentally dependent on the flow of ecosystem services.Original version of this slide was prepared by Karen Bennett, WRI.There are other means to categorize the services/benefits to people: function, scale, directional…
4 EducationprogramsLand cover changeClimate changeForest CoverHydrologyMild winterKnowledgeRisk/SeriousPrecipitationPrecipitationUrbanization/InfrastructureBirdsreproduceearlierNutrient inputSocialStructure# Containers& landscape# all breedingsitesBirds matureearlierBehavior HH:MaintenanceQuality ofbreeding sitesTemperatureAvailabilityof birdsBehavior:ExposureMosquitoabundanceMosquito bitepreference for people# of biteson peopleClustering of birdsand mosquitoes# of infectiousbites on peopleWNV prevalencein mosquitoesAgeOverall healthWNV prevalencein birdsSusceptibilityWNV cases
5 Human risk and behavior varies by socioeconomic factors Transmission RiskBehavior: Yard maintenanceBehavior: PersonalThe most susceptible groups:Are the most concernedTake the most household actions to reduce habitatTake the most behavioral precautions
6 The environment, recreation, and human health Personal development and growth Self-esteem, creativity, skill development Mental health Stress reduction, reduced depression Physiological Cardiovascular, obesity reduction
7 Obesity reduction and outdoor recreation Alabama has the fourth highest rate of adult obesity in the nation (33%) and the sixth highest rate of overweight youths (ages at 36%).
8 CDC: Engaging Communities to Reduce & Prevent Obesity in High-Obesity Alabama Counties Three pronged approach:1. Provide education and promotional support to environmental approaches2. Implement evidence-based strategies to increase access and consumption of healthy food and beverages3. Implement evidence-based strategies to increase opportunities for physical activity
9 Implement evidence-based strategies to increase opportunities for physical activity Municipal assessment in 14 communitiesAccess to parks and trailsSafe routes to schoolSchool facilities and availabilitySchool physical education programmingFocus GroupsAssessment of barriers and opportunitiesYears 2 & 3 Implementation