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Socialization and Adolescence

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1 Socialization and Adolescence
Chapters 5&6: Socialization and Adolescence

2 What was John Locke’s theory on socialization?
John Locke believed everyone was born without a personality, or a clean slate, upon which our experiences created us. He called this clean slate a ‘tabula rasa.’

3 What was Charles Horton Cooley’s theory on socialization called?
His idea was called the ‘looking glass self.’ He believed that people get an image of themselves based on how society responds to them.

4 What was George Herbert Mead’s theory on socialization?
He believed that the self has two parts: the ‘I’ and the ‘me.’ He thought that the ‘I’ was the spontaneous, unrefined, and self-interested part of our personality. Over time, the ‘I’ diminished in favor or the ‘me,’ which is the socially-aware part of our self. These two parts combine to create our personality.

5 What are the six agents of socialization?
The Family The Peer Group The School The Mass Media Religion Fairy Tales

6 What is the most powerful type of mass media?
Television What per centage of households have at least one television set? 98%-99% On average, how long are they on each day? Six hours

7 Define total institutions:
Total institutions are places in which resocialization occurs. Someone’s original identity is broken down and a new identity is created. Give some examples of total institutions.

8 How do other cultures view adolescence?
Many other cultures do not recognize this period of life. They have puberty rites, which, once completed, transition boys and girls to adulthood automatically. The United States recognizes a roughly ten year period of time, during which kids figure out their identities and their futures.

9 What three factors created the concept of adolescence in the United States?
Education created a situation in which children must be in school; therefore, they remain dependent on their parents for their basic needs. Child labor laws prevent kids from working full-time. The juvenile justice system created a whole separate legal category for kids.

10 What is anticipatory socialization?
Anticipatory socialization involves giving some responsibility to adolescents in order to prepare them for serious roles in the future. Examples include chores, babysitting, dating, and part-time jobs. These all help prepare kids for responsibilities as adults.

11 What factors led to the modern concept of dating?
The Industrial Revolution saw the rise of child labor, in which kids would spend long hours together without parental supervision. Secondary school allowed for time for kids to socialize. The widespread availability of phones and cars after WWI and WWII allowed kids the opportunity to arrange and spend time away from their parents also. The Sexual Revolution also brought about a more casual and free attitude towards sexuality in contrast to early Puritan values.

12 What are some influences on teenage sexual activity?
Teens from higher-income, two-parent families tend to have lower rates of early sexual activity. Teens who actively practice their religion are less likely to have sex. Teens whose friends are having sex are more likely to follow suit.

13 What percentage of girls will become pregnant before age 20?
Thirty-four percent How many times higher is the United States teen pregnancy rate in comparison to other industrialized countries? Five times higher.

14 What has happened to the rate of drug use amongst teenagers since the 1970s?
Rates of most drugs, including marijuana, have fallen. The rates of others, such as hallucinogens, have risen, however. Largely due to the War on Drugs, more adolescents today are more aware of the harmful social and health effects of drugs than ever before.

15 What are some influences on teenage drug use?
Teens who have friends that use are more likely to also use. Teens who have social or academic problems are also more likely to use. Teens who have a negative family environment are also more likely to use.

16 What was Emile Durkheim’s theory on suicide?
Durkheim believed that if there was a low level of social integration, or connection, that a person felt to others, then they were more likely to commit suicide.

17 What are some predictors of teen suicide?
Alcohol or drug use A triggering event Age Sex Population density Family environment Bullying, especially in regards to sexuality.

18 What is the third leading cause of death amongst adolescents?
Suicide What is the sixth leading cause of death amongst adolescents? AIDS

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