3 Rapid urbanization occurred in the late 19th century in the Northeast & Midwest Most immigrants settled in cities because of the available jobs & affordable housingBy 1910, immigrants made up more than half the population of 18 major American cities
4 Americanization Movement Education program designed to help immigrants assimilate to American culture.Taught English and “American” culture.Urbanization: the growth of cities.Immigrants lived in ethnic neighborhoods where people spoke the same language.People moved from the farms to the cities for jobs in the factories.
5 URBAN PROBLEMSProblems in American cities in the late 19th and early 20th century included:Housing: overcrowded tenements were unsanitarySanitation: garbage was often not collected, polluted airFamous photographer Jacob Riis captured the struggle of living in crowded tenements
6 URBAN PROBLEMS CONTINUED Transportation: Cities struggled to provide adequate transit systemsWater: Without safe drinking water cholera and typhoid fever was commonCrime: As populations increased thieves flourishedFire: Limited water supply, wooden structures combined with the use of candles led to major urban fires – Chicago 1871 and San Francisco 1906 were two major firesHarper’s Weekly image of Chicagoans fleeing the fire over the Randolph Street bridge in 1871
7 PHOTOGRAPHER JACOB RIIS CAPTURED IMAGES OF THE CITY
14 Section 1 Continued Segregation Great Migration Jim Crow Laws De Facto SegregationDe Jure SegregationGhettos
15 Segregation De facto segregation: exists by practice & custom (choice) De jure segregation: segregation by law. (difficult to fight this!)
16 SECTION 2: POLITICAL MACHINES ACQUIRE MORE POWER As cities grew in the late 19th century, so did political machinesPolitical machines controlled the activities of a political party in a cityWard bosses, precinct captains, and the city boss worked to ensure their candidate was elected
17 ROLE OF THE POLITICAL BOSS The “Boss” controlled jobs, business licenses, and influenced the court systemPrecinct captains and ward bosses were often 1st or 2nd generation immigrants so they helped immigrants with naturalization, jobs, and housing in exchange for votesBoss Tweed ran NYC
18 MUNICIPAL GRAFT AND SCANDAL Some political bosses were corruptSome political machines used fake names and voted multiple times to ensure victory (“Vote early and often”) – called Election fraudGraft (bribes) was common among political bossesConstruction contracts often resulted in “kick-backs”The fact that police forces were hired by the boss prevented close scrutiny
19 THE TWEED RING SCANDALWilliam M. Tweed, known as Boss Tweed, became head of Tammany Hall, NYC’s powerful Democratic political machinesBetween , Tweed led the Tweed Ring, a group of corrupt politicians, in defrauding the city($10 million)Tweed was indicted on 120 counts of fraud and extortionTweed was sentenced to 12 years in jail – released after one, arrested again, and escaped to SpainBoss Tweed
20 ImmigrantsImmigrants were put to work for the machines (those who spoke English).Would tell new immigrants to follow the “bosses” rules.The political machines helped immigrants become citizens, provided housing and jobs.Would get votes in return.
21 Section 3: New Immigrants Arrive 19th century immigrationEastern EuropeansCultural DifferencesLanguageReligionRace
23 Melting Pot A mixture of people from different cultures and races. They blend together by abandoning their native languages and cultures.Become “American”
24 Chinatowns are found in many major cities FRICTION DEVELOPSSome immigrants tried to assimilate into American culture, others kept to themselves & created ethnic communitiesCommitted to culture, but tried hard to become Americans, many came to think of themselves as Italian-Americans, Polish-Americans, Chinese-Americans, etcSome native born Americans disliked the immigrants unfamiliar customs and languages – friction soon developedChinatowns are found in many major cities
25 EUROPEANSBetween 1870 and 1920, about 20 million Europeans arrived in the United StatesBefore 1890, most were from western and northern EuropeAfter 1890, most came from southern and eastern EuropeAll were looking for opportunity
26 LIFE IN THE NEW LANDLate 19th century most immigrants arrived via boatsTrip from Europe took about a month, took about 3 weeks from AsiaThe trip was arduous and many died along the wayDestination was Ellis Island for Europeans, and Angel Island for Asians
27 ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORKEllis Island- arrival point for European immigrantsHad to pass inspection at the immigration stationsProcessing took hours, and the sick were sent homeImmigrants had to show they were not criminals, had some money ($25), and were able to workFrom , 17 million immigrants passed through Ellis Island’s facilities
29 ANGEL ISLAND, SAN FRANCISCO Asians, primarily Chinese, arrived on West Coast, gained admission at Angel Island (San Francisco Bay)Processing was harsher than Ellis IslandImmigrants withstood tough questioning and long detentions in filthy conditions
30 ANGEL ISLAND WAS CONSIDERED MORE HARSH THAN ELLIS ISLAND
31 Section 4: Demands Grow for Restrictions on Immigration As immigration increased, so did anti-immigrant feelings among nativesAnti-Asian feelings included restaurant boycotts
32 NativismFavoring the interests of native-born people over foreign-born people.Anti-immigrant groups formed.Most native born Americans were Protestants.Did not like Jewish, Catholics, or Muslim immigrants.Catholics were attacked & Jews were not allowed in certain public places.
33 CongressCongress passed a literacy test requirement for immigrants to enter the U.S.Had to read 40 words in English.President Cleveland vetoed the bill.It passed in 1917 when Wilson was in office, even though he vetoed it.
34 Many Chinese men worked for the railroads Between 1851 and 1882, about 300,000 Chinese arrived on the West CoastSome were attracted by the Gold Rush, others went to work for the railroads, farmed or worked as domestic servantsMany Chinese men worked for the railroads
35 Anti-AsianAmericans were worried about jobs going to Chinese immigrants.Chinese Exclusion Act: law where no Chinese immigrants were allowed to enter the U.S. for 10 years.Law was extended another 10 years in 1892.1902: Chinese immigration was restricted.Law turned over in 1943.
36 JAPANESEIn 1884, the Japanese government allowed Hawaiian planters to recruit Japanese workersThe U.S. annexation of Hawaii in 1898 increased Japanese immigration to the west coastBy 1920, more than 200,000 Japanese lived on the west coast
37 Japanese1906: San Francisco segregated Japanese children and put them into separate schools.President Theodore Roosevelt helped pass the Gentlemen’s Agreement ofGentlemen’s Agreement: Japan’s government agreed to limit the number of unskilled workers going to the U.S. if San Francisco stopped the segregation.
38 Immigration Restrictions Continued Alien Land Law- prohibited Japanese from owning agricultural land