Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO INVESTIGATION Mr. Cappello Sir Robert Borden High School 9-1-1 Specialist High Skills Major Program."— Presentation transcript:
INTRODUCTION TO INVESTIGATION Mr. Cappello Sir Robert Borden High School 9-1-1 Specialist High Skills Major Program
Overview An Overview of Investigating 1. Defining an Investigation 2. Practices to follow during an Investigation 3. Art or Science? Types of Investigations 1. Criminal-Non criminal 2. Reactive- Proactive 3. Overt-Covert The Investigating Questions 1. Patterns, Leads, Tips, and Theories
Investigation Defined Investigation: the systematic and thorough examination or inquiry into something or someone (the collection of facts or information) and the recording of this examination or inquiry in a report. The word investigate can be traced back to the Latin word investigare, meaning "to search into.” Investigare is based on another Latin word, vestigare, meaning "to track or to trace."
Investigation, Art or Science? Both! Investigating is a science because there are certain rules that should be followed to conduct a successful investigation. Pure sciences and applied sciences play an increasingly important role in the investigating process. Investigating is an art because it depends on the human skills of the investigator, including interpersonal communication and creativity.
Practices to follow during an Investigation 1. A logical sequence must be followed 2. Real, physical evidence must be legally obtained 3. Real, physical evidence must be properly stored and preserved. 4. Witnesses must be identified, interviewed, and 5. prepared for any potential or actual litigation 6. Leads must be developed. 7. Reports and documentation must be collected 8. Information must be accurately and completely recorded. 9. Evidence collected must correlate to the claim cause of action, or offence charged
Criminal vs. Non Criminal Criminal: jurisdiction of police/government agencies. Non-criminal investigations: involve the investigation of non-criminal incidents or events. Non-criminal investigations may be conducted by the public, police or private investigators. The main difference between non-criminal investigations by the public, police and by private investigators is that police investigations are funded by the government, whereas private investigations are paid for by individual clients or businesses.
Basic Police Investigation 5 tasks during the preliminary reactive investigation by a patrol officer: 1) Conducts a preliminary search of the area of crime: to determine if the suspect is still present; 2) Renders first aid to any injured parties, 3) Detains, separates, and interviews any possible suspects or witnesses; 4) Restricts access to the area where the crime was committed to prevent the destruction of evidence. 5) Prepares the first written report of the crime, which is generally called an incident or complaint report.
Proactive Investigation Proactive investigations are investigations conducted by the police based on their own initiative. The proactive investigation is: Designed to catch a criminal in the act of committing a crime, rather than waiting until a citizen reports a crime. The three main types of proactive investigations are: 1. Decoy operations 2. Repeat offender programs 3. Undercover drug operations
Overt vs. Covert Investigation An overt investigation is one that is conducted openly- investigators do not try to hide their true identity or hide the fact that they are conducting the investigation. Most reactive investigations are overt. A covert investigation, on the other hand, is conducted in secret-the investigator tries to hide his identity and the fact that he is conducting an investigation. Generally proactive investigations are covert. Covert investigations are more commonly called undercover investigations.
Patterns & Leads A pattern is a series of similarities that may link particular cases or indicate that the same person is committing a series of crimes. Leads are clues or pieces of information that aid in the progress of an investigation. Leads can be physical evidence or information received by witnesses or other persons or through surveillances, undercover investigations, and record searches. A lead is anything that can assist an investigator in resolving an investigation.
Tips & Theories Tips are leads provided by citizens that aid in the progress of an investigation. Generally tips involve the identity of the suspect (eg. Crime Stoppers) Theories are beliefs regarding the case based on evidence, patterns, leads, tips, and other information developed or uncovered in a case. Theories are important because they direct the investigation. Investigators have to be very careful in building theories about a case, because if the theory is wrong, it may lead them in the wrong direction.