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Chapter 5 Power, Conflict, and Policy

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1 Chapter 5 Power, Conflict, and Policy
The Role of Political Science in International Studies

2 Introduction What do political scientists study?
Wide range of subjects How is politics defined? Human interactions that involve both power and conflict What is the role of international studies in politics? International studies vs. International relations

3 Major Fields Political science broken into two subfields that deal with international studies: Comparative politics International relations Realism Idealism Other subfields of political science: American politics Political theory Public administration

4 Comparative Politics Study of domestic politics analyzed using the comparative method Researchers are regional specialists Democracy Not necessarily the norm, rather the exception Hard for Westerners to think of it that way Military Coups Military officials serve as leadership

5 Democracy Open vs. Closed Systems
Democracy is an example of an open system Freedom of thought, choice of leadership, etc. Communism is an example of a closed system Little or no input from domestic constituency Presidential vs. Parliamentary Systems Two forms of government in an open system Some countries, such as France, practice a hybrid of the two Use of an election doesn’t necessarily mean democracy

6 Military Coups Also known as coups d’état Common from 1950’s to 1980’s
Is sometimes seen as the “lesser of two evils” or for “the good of the nation” This isn’t always the case though Turkish history has experienced three different military leaderships in the last half century

7 International Politics (Relations)
Study of political behavior outside of or across domestic political borders Subfields include: Peace and conflict International security Foreign policy analysis International political economy Global organization International law U.S. Foreign Policy is one very important subfield of international politics due to the influence of the U.S.

8 Theories of International Politics
Theories perform two crucial functions: Provides concepts to understand phenomena Explains global political outcomes Third function of theories: policy advocacy Does not apply to all theories Parsimony Elegance or brevity of a theory How well it reduces global complexity The two most important theories: Realism Idealism

9 Idealism/Liberalism The idea that humans are moral beings, are not violent or selfish by nature, and that public institution moderates the individual behavior Collective security The organization and agreement by states to rules of international engagement The larger group keeps the states in check Culminated in the League of Nations

10 Applications of Idealism
North American Free Trade Agreement Serves to bind countries into peaceful trading relationships European Union (EU) Another example of group that benefits from other members cooperation Complex interdependence

11 Realism Also referred to as “realpolitik”
Human nature is self-interested and power hungry and states are an extension of this human nature States operate in a world of anarchy, or the absence of a global government States seek alliances with the powerful, offering what they can in terms of resources These powerful countries are called “hegemons” Unlike idealism, realism is not a prescriptive theory

12 Theoretical Diversity
Idealism and realism are the two most prominent theoretical traditions in international politics Other types of theoretical perspectives that draw from realism and idealism are: Feminism Marxism Globalization Interdependence Constructivism

13 The Political Spectrum
Several ways one can view the role of the government in human activities Right: limited government promotes free markets opposes taxes Left: expanded government government important in human welfare promotes taxation

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