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Realism Kenneth Waltz Kaisa Ellandi Lecture 2.

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1 Realism Kenneth Waltz Kaisa Ellandi Lecture 2

2 Realism.. States are: Main problem is: anarchy - no world government
Self-interested Aggressive Will pursue their interest to the detriment of others Without regard to law and morality Main problem is: anarchy - no world government

3 Realism … conflicts are inevitable
States must be strong and face aggression

4 Key points Sovereign states are key actors in IR
State are motivated by a drive for power and pursuit of the „national interest“ Main problem – anarchy Conflicts is an ever-present reality of IR (lack of world government and aggressive intent of states) Alliances among states – so no state would become overwhelmingly powerful

5 Key points Power is the key to understanding international behavior and state motivation; Individuals are selfish – this is the cause of conflicts Main problem: lack of central authority

6 The state and power State has Central characteristics: sovereignty
defined territory, government, sovereign authority, recognition, exercises power over it’s people Central characteristics: sovereignty Internal and external sovereignty

7 State and power Power is the ability to change behavior and dominate over others Military capability as an essence of power Military capability depends on: Population Abundance of natural resources Geographical factors Type of government

8 Balance of power To prevent the dominance of any one state in the international system The main aim of “balance of power” is to preserve the security of states, if necessary by means of war

9 Conflict and violence Kenneth Waltz „Man, the State and War“ (1959)
Human nature is the root cause of war National interests lead inevitably to nationalistic clashes with other states Structure of international system itself leads to conflict by forcing states to act in a certain way

10 Peace and Security Peace is a condition characterized by an absence of war Relationship between state and peace is not straightforward Security is about state survival Thanks to balance of power, most of the states are secure Each state has to provide for its own security

11 Institutions and world order
Main actors in IR: states Hedley Bull: International Institutions are „states in waiting“ International institutions are significant only to the extent that they allow states to pursue their own interest. Hegemony ( a concept of neo-realist) is the dominance of a single power

12 Identity and community
People identify with the nation state Main community is the nation-state community State must be concentrated on the well- being of its citizens

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